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The editors at Solutions Review have compiled this list of the best machine learning certifications online to consider acquiring. Machine learning involves studying computer algorithms that improve automatically through experience. It is a sub-field of artificial intelligence where machine learning algorithms build models based on sample (or training) data. Once a predictive model is constructed it can be used to make predictions or decisions without being specifically commanded to do so. Machine learning is now a mainstream technology with a wide variety of uses and applications.
This is an intermediate-level free artificial intelligence course. This course will teach the basics of modern AI as well as some of the representative applications of AI including machine learning, probabilistic reasoning, robotics, computer vision, and natural language processing. To understand this course, you should have some previous understanding of probability theory and linear algebra.
Time-series forecasting is one of the most widely dealt with machine learning problems ever. Time series forecasting finds crucial applications in various fields including signal communication, climate, space science, healthcare, financial and marketing industries. Deep learning models outshine in time series analysis nowadays with great performance in various public datasets. The key idea of deep learning models is to learn the inter-sample relationships to predict the future. However, intra-temporal relationships among different features within a sample are hardly dealt with.
Class labels used for machine learning are relatable to each other, with certain class labels being more similar to each other than others (e.g. images of cats and dogs are more similar to each other than those of cats and cars). Such similarity among classes is often the cause of poor model performance due to the models confusing between them. Current labeling techniques fail to explicitly capture such similarity information. In this paper, we instead exploit the similarity between classes by capturing the similarity information with our novel confidence labels. Confidence labels are probabilistic labels denoting the likelihood of similarity, or confusability, between the classes. Often even after models are trained to differentiate between classes in the feature space, the similar classes' latent space still remains clustered. We view this type of clustering as valuable information and exploit it with our novel projective loss functions. Our projective loss functions are designed to work with confidence labels with an ability to relax the loss penalty for errors that confuse similar classes. We use our approach to train neural networks with noisy labels, as we believe noisy labels are partly a result of confusability arising from class similarity. We show improved performance compared to the use of standard loss functions. We conduct a detailed analysis using the CIFAR-10 dataset and show our proposed methods' applicability to larger datasets, such as ImageNet and Food-101N.
In this section we will learn - What does Machine Learning mean. What are the meanings or different terms associated with machine learning? You will see some examples so that you understand what machine learning actually is. It also contains steps involved in building a machine learning model, not just linear models, any machine learning model.
If an unknown example that is not seen during training appears, most recognition systems usually produce overgeneralized results and determine that the example belongs to one of the known classes. To address this problem, teacher-explorer-student (T/E/S) learning, which adopts the concept of open set recognition (OSR) that aims to reject unknown samples while minimizing the loss of classification performance on known samples, is proposed in this study. In this novel learning method, overgeneralization of deep learning classifiers is significantly reduced by exploring various possibilities of unknowns. Here, the teacher network extracts some hints about unknowns by distilling the pretrained knowledge about knowns and delivers this distilled knowledge to the student. After learning the distilled knowledge, the student network shares the learned information with the explorer network. Then, the explorer network shares its exploration results by generating unknown-like samples and feeding the samples to the student network. By repeating this alternating learning process, the student network experiences a variety of synthetic unknowns, reducing overgeneralization. Extensive experiments were conducted, and the experimental results showed that each component proposed in this paper significantly contributes to the improvement in OSR performance. As a result, the proposed T/E/S learning method outperformed current state-of-the-art methods.
One of the most concerning threats for modern AI systems is data poisoning, where the attacker injects maliciously crafted training data to corrupt the system's behavior at test time. Availability poisoning is a particularly worrisome subset of poisoning attacks where the attacker aims to cause a Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. However, the state-of-the-art algorithms are computationally expensive because they try to solve a complex bi-level optimization problem (the "hammer"). We observed that in particular conditions, namely, where the target model is linear (the "nut"), the usage of computationally costly procedures can be avoided. We propose a counter-intuitive but efficient heuristic that allows contaminating the training set such that the target system's performance is highly compromised. We further suggest a re-parameterization trick to decrease the number of variables to be optimized. Finally, we demonstrate that, under the considered settings, our framework achieves comparable, or even better, performances in terms of the attacker's objective while being significantly more computationally efficient.
Most of unsupervised person Re-Identification (Re-ID) works produce pseudo-labels by measuring the feature similarity without considering the distribution discrepancy among cameras, leading to degraded accuracy in label computation across cameras. This paper targets to address this challenge by studying a novel intra-inter camera similarity for pseudo-label generation. We decompose the sample similarity computation into two stage, i.e., the intra-camera and inter-camera computations, respectively. The intra-camera computation directly leverages the CNN features for similarity computation within each camera. Pseudo-labels generated on different cameras train the re-id model in a multi-branch network. The second stage considers the classification scores of each sample on different cameras as a new feature vector. This new feature effectively alleviates the distribution discrepancy among cameras and generates more reliable pseudo-labels. We hence train our re-id model in two stages with intra-camera and inter-camera pseudo-labels, respectively. This simple intra-inter camera similarity produces surprisingly good performance on multiple datasets, e.g., achieves rank-1 accuracy of 89.5% on the Market1501 dataset, outperforming the recent unsupervised works by 9+%, and is comparable with the latest transfer learning works that leverage extra annotations.