This large scale study focuses on quantifying what X-rays diagnostic prediction tasks generalize well across multiple different datasets. We present evidence that the issue of generalization is not due to a shift in the images but instead a shift in the labels. We study the cross-domain performance, agreement between models, and model representations. We find interesting discrepancies between performance and agreement where models which both achieve good performance disagree in their predictions as well as models which agree yet achieve poor performance. We also test for concept similarity by regularizing a network to group tasks across multiple datasets together and observe variation across the tasks.
This work provides a strong baseline for the problem of multi-source multi-target domain adaptation and generalization in medical imaging. Using a diverse collection of ten chest X-ray datasets, we empirically demonstrate the benefits of training medical imaging deep learning models on varied patient populations for generalization to out-of-sample domains.
Deep learning networks have shown state-of-the-art performance in many image reconstruction problems. However, it is not well understood what properties of representation and learning may improve the generalization ability of the network. In this paper, we propose that the generalization ability of an encoder-decoder network for inverse reconstruction can be improved in two means. First, drawing from analytical learning theory, we theoretically show that a stochastic latent space will improve the ability of a network to generalize to test data outside the training distribution. Second, following the information bottleneck principle, we show that a latent representation minimally informative of the input data will help a network generalize to unseen input variations that are irrelevant to the output reconstruction. Therefore, we present a sequence image reconstruction network optimized by a variational approximation of the information bottleneck principle with stochastic latent space. In the application setting of reconstructing the sequence of cardiac transmembrane potential from bodysurface potential, we assess the two types of generalization abilities of the presented network against its deterministic counterpart. The results demonstrate that the generalization ability of an inverse reconstruction network can be improved by stochasticity as well as the information bottleneck.