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Deep Learning: Advanced NLP and RNNs

#artificialintelligence

Created by Lazy Programmer Inc. English [Auto], Indonesian [Auto], Students also bought Unsupervised Machine Learning Hidden Markov Models in Python Machine Learning and AI: Support Vector Machines in Python Natural Language Processing with Deep Learning in Python Advanced AI: Deep Reinforcement Learning in Python Deep Learning: Advanced Computer Vision (GANs, SSD, More!) Artificial Intelligence: Reinforcement Learning in Python Preview this course GET COUPON CODE Description It's hard to believe it's been been over a year since I released my first course on Deep Learning with NLP (natural language processing). A lot of cool stuff has happened since then, and I've been deep in the trenches learning, researching, and accumulating the best and most useful ideas to bring them back to you. So what is this course all about, and how have things changed since then? In previous courses, you learned about some of the fundamental building blocks of Deep NLP. We looked at RNNs (recurrent neural networks), CNNs (convolutional neural networks), and word embedding algorithms such as word2vec and GloVe.


Facebook's Open Source Framework For Training Graph-Based ML Models

#artificialintelligence

In this case, GTN will be used in automatic differentiation of weighted finite-state transducers (WFSTs), which is an expressive and powerful graph. This framework enables the separation of graphs from operations on them that helps in exploring new structured loss functions and which in turn makes the encoding of prior knowledge on learning algorithms easier. Further, in a paper published by Awni Hannun, Vineel Pratap, Jacob Kahn & Wei-Ning Hsu of the Facebook AI Research, in this regard, proposed a convolutional WFST layer to be used in the interior of a deep neural network for mapping lower-level to higher-level representations. GTN is written in C and has bindings to Python. GTN can be used to express and design sequence-level loss functions.


Visual Methods for Sign Language Recognition: A Modality-Based Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Sign language visual recognition from continuous multi-modal streams is still one of the most challenging fields. Recent advances in human actions recognition are exploiting the ascension of GPU-based learning from massive data, and are getting closer to human-like performances. They are then prone to creating interactive services for the deaf and hearing-impaired communities. A population that is expected to grow considerably in the years to come. This paper aims at reviewing the human actions recognition literature with the sign-language visual understanding as a scope. The methods analyzed will be mainly organized according to the different types of unimodal inputs exploited, their relative multi-modal combinations and pipeline steps. In each section, we will detail and compare the related datasets, approaches then distinguish the still open contribution paths suitable for the creation of sign language related services. Special attention will be paid to the approaches and commercial solutions handling facial expressions and continuous signing.


Reinforcement Learning Approaches in Social Robotics

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In order to facilitate natural interaction, researchers in social robotics have focused on robots that can adapt to diverse conditions and to the different users with whom they interact. Recently, there has been great interest in the use of machine learning methods for adaptive social robots [48], [29], [106], [45], [49], [86]. Machine Learning (ML) algorithms can be categorized into three subfields [2]: supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning. In supervised learning, correct input/output pairs are available and the goal is to find a correct mapping from input to output space. In unsupervised learning, output data is not available and the goal is to find patterns in the input data. Reinforcement Learning (RL) [96] is a framework for decision-making problems in which an agent interacts through trial-and-error with its environment to discover an optimal behavior. The agent does not receive direct feedback of correctness, instead it receives scarce feedback about the actions it has taken in the past.


Dynamic Horizon Value Estimation for Model-based Reinforcement Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Existing model-based value expansion methods typically leverage a world model for value estimation with a fixed rollout horizon to assist policy learning. However, the fixed rollout with an inaccurate model has a potential to harm the learning process. In this paper, we investigate the idea of using the model knowledge for value expansion adaptively. We propose a novel method called Dynamic-horizon Model-based Value Expansion (DMVE) to adjust the world model usage with different rollout horizons. Inspired by reconstruction-based techniques that can be applied for visual data novelty detection, we utilize a world model with a reconstruction module for image feature extraction, in order to acquire more precise value estimation. The raw and the reconstructed images are both used to determine the appropriate horizon for adaptive value expansion. On several benchmark visual control tasks, experimental results show that DMVE outperforms all baselines in sample efficiency and final performance, indicating that DMVE can achieve more effective and accurate value estimation than state-of-the-art model-based methods.


Digital Analytics

#artificialintelligence

Invented by Geoffrey Hinton in 1985, Restricted Boltzmann Machine which falls under the category of unsupervised learning algorithms is a network of symmetrically connected neuron-like units that make stochastic decisions. This deep learning algorithm became very popular after the Netflix Competition where RBM was used as a collaborative filtering technique to predict user ratings for movies and beat most of its competition. It is useful for regression, classification, dimensionality reduction, feature learning, topic modelling and collaborative filtering. Restricted Boltzmann Machines are stochastic two layered neural networks which belong to a category of energy based models that can detect inherent patterns automatically in the data by reconstructing input. They have two layers visible and hidden.


AI and Wargaming

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent progress in Game AI has demonstrated that given enough data from human gameplay, or experience gained via simulations, machines can rival or surpass the most skilled human players in classic games such as Go, or commercial computer games such as Starcraft. We review the current state-of-the-art through the lens of wargaming, and ask firstly what features of wargames distinguish them from the usual AI testbeds, and secondly which recent AI advances are best suited to address these wargame-specific features.


Deep Reinforcement Learning for Closed-Loop Blood Glucose Control

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) lack the ability to produce the insulin their bodies need. As a result, they must continually make decisions about how much insulin to self-administer to adequately control their blood glucose levels. Longitudinal data streams captured from wearables, like continuous glucose monitors, can help these individuals manage their health, but currently the majority of the decision burden remains on the user. To relieve this burden, researchers are working on closed-loop solutions that combine a continuous glucose monitor and an insulin pump with a control algorithm in an `artificial pancreas.' Such systems aim to estimate and deliver the appropriate amount of insulin. Here, we develop reinforcement learning (RL) techniques for automated blood glucose control. Through a series of experiments, we compare the performance of different deep RL approaches to non-RL approaches. We highlight the flexibility of RL approaches, demonstrating how they can adapt to new individuals with little additional data. On over 2.1 million hours of data from 30 simulated patients, our RL approach outperforms baseline control algorithms: leading to a decrease in median glycemic risk of nearly 50% from 8.34 to 4.24 and a decrease in total time hypoglycemic of 99.8%, from 4,610 days to 6. Moreover, these approaches are able to adapt to predictable meal times (decreasing average risk by an additional 24% as meals increase in predictability). This work demonstrates the potential of deep RL to help people with T1D manage their blood glucose levels without requiring expert knowledge. All of our code is publicly available, allowing for replication and extension.


Structured Attention for Unsupervised Dialogue Structure Induction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Inducing a meaningful structural representation from one or a set of dialogues is a crucial but challenging task in computational linguistics. Advancement made in this area is critical for dialogue system design and discourse analysis. It can also be extended to solve grammatical inference. In this work, we propose to incorporate structured attention layers into a Variational Recurrent Neural Network (VRNN) model with discrete latent states to learn dialogue structure in an unsupervised fashion. Compared to a vanilla VRNN, structured attention enables a model to focus on different parts of the source sentence embeddings while enforcing a structural inductive bias. Experiments show that on two-party dialogue datasets, VRNN with structured attention learns semantic structures that are similar to templates used to generate this dialogue corpus. While on multi-party dialogue datasets, our model learns an interactive structure demonstrating its capability of distinguishing speakers or addresses, automatically disentangling dialogues without explicit human annotation.


Exploring Bayesian Surprise to Prevent Overfitting and to Predict Model Performance in Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a field of research focused on segregating constituent electrical loads in a system based only on their aggregated signal. Significant computational resources and research time are spent training models, often using as much data as possible, perhaps driven by the preconception that more data equates to more accurate models and better performing algorithms. When has enough prior training been done? When has a NILM algorithm encountered new, unseen data? This work applies the notion of Bayesian surprise to answer these questions which are important for both supervised and unsupervised algorithms. We quantify the degree of surprise between the predictive distribution (termed postdictive surprise), as well as the transitional probabilities (termed transitional surprise), before and after a window of observations. We compare the performance of several benchmark NILM algorithms supported by NILMTK, in order to establish a useful threshold on the two combined measures of surprise. We validate the use of transitional surprise by exploring the performance of a popular Hidden Markov Model as a function of surprise threshold. Finally, we explore the use of a surprise threshold as a regularization technique to avoid overfitting in cross-dataset performance. Although the generality of the specific surprise threshold discussed herein may be suspect without further testing, this work provides clear evidence that a point of diminishing returns of model performance with respect to dataset size exists. This has implications for future model development, dataset acquisition, as well as aiding in model flexibility during deployment.