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Learning-based vs Model-free Adaptive Control of a MAV under Wind Gust

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Navigation problems under unknown varying conditions are among the most important and well-studied problems in the control field. Classic model-based adaptive control methods can be applied only when a convenient model of the plant or environment is provided. Recent model-free adaptive control methods aim at removing this dependency by learning the physical characteristics of the plant and/or process directly from sensor feedback. Although there have been prior attempts at improving these techniques, it remains an open question as to whether it is possible to cope with real-world uncertainties in a control system that is fully based on either paradigm. We propose a conceptually simple learning-based approach composed of a full state feedback controller, tuned robustly by a deep reinforcement learning framework based on the Soft Actor-Critic algorithm. We compare it, in realistic simulations, to a model-free controller that uses the same deep reinforcement learning framework for the control of a micro aerial vehicle under wind gust. The results indicate the great potential of learning-based adaptive control methods in modern dynamical systems.


Safe and Efficient Model-free Adaptive Control via Bayesian Optimization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Adaptive control approaches yield high-performance controllers when a precise system model or suitable parametrizations of the controller are available. Existing data-driven approaches for adaptive control mostly augment standard model-based methods with additional information about uncertainties in the dynamics or about disturbances. In this work, we propose a purely data-driven, model-free approach for adaptive control. Tuning low-level controllers based solely on system data raises concerns on the underlying algorithm safety and computational performance. Thus, our approach builds on GoOSE, an algorithm for safe and sample-efficient Bayesian optimization. We introduce several computational and algorithmic modifications in GoOSE that enable its practical use on a rotational motion system. We numerically demonstrate for several types of disturbances that our approach is sample efficient, outperforms constrained Bayesian optimization in terms of safety, and achieves the performance optima computed by grid evaluation. We further demonstrate the proposed adaptive control approach experimentally on a rotational motion system.


Distributed Adaptive Control: An ideal Cognitive Architecture candidate for managing a robotic recycling plant

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In the past decade, society has experienced notable growth in a variety of technological areas. However, the Fourth Industrial Revolution has not been embraced yet. Industry 4.0 imposes several challenges which include the necessity of new architectural models to tackle the uncertainty that open environments represent to cyber-physical systems (CPS). Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) recycling plants stand for one of such open environments. Here, CPSs must work harmoniously in a changing environment, interacting with similar and not so similar CPSs, and adaptively collaborating with human workers. In this paper, we support the Distributed Adaptive Control (DAC) theory as a suitable Cognitive Architecture for managing a recycling plant. Specifically, a recursive implementation of DAC (between both singleagent and large-scale levels) is proposed to meet the expected demands of the European Project HR-Recycler. Additionally, with the aim of having a realistic benchmark for future implementations of the recursive DAC, a micro-recycling plant prototype is presented. Keywords: Cognitive Architecture, Distributed Adaptive Control, Recycling Plant, Navigation, Motor Control, Human-Robot Interaction.


Lazily Adapted Constant Kinky Inference for Nonparametric Regression and Model-Reference Adaptive Control

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Techniques known as Nonlinear Set Membership prediction, Lipschitz Interpolation or Kinky Inference are approaches to machine learning that utilise presupposed Lipschitz properties to compute inferences over unobserved function values. Provided a bound on the true best Lipschitz constant of the target function is known a priori they offer convergence guarantees as well as bounds around the predictions. Considering a more general setting that builds on Hoelder continuity relative to pseudo-metrics, we propose an online method for estimating the Hoelder constant online from function value observations that possibly are corrupted by bounded observational errors. Utilising this to compute adaptive parameters within a kinky inference rule gives rise to a nonparametric machine learning method, for which we establish strong universal approximation guarantees. That is, we show that our prediction rule can learn any continuous function in the limit of increasingly dense data to within a worst-case error bound that depends on the level of observational uncertainty. We apply our method in the context of nonparametric model-reference adaptive control (MRAC). Across a range of simulated aircraft roll-dynamics and performance metrics our approach outperforms recently proposed alternatives that were based on Gaussian processes and RBF-neural networks. For discrete-time systems, we provide stability guarantees for our learning-based controllers both for the batch and the online learning setting.


A Neural Net Model for Adaptive Control of Saccadic Accuracy by Primate Cerebellum and Brainstem

Neural Information Processing Systems

Accurate saccades require interaction between brainstem circuitry and the cerebeJJum. A model of this interaction is described, based on Kawato's principle of feedback-error-Iearning. In the model a part of the brainstem (the superior colliculus) acts as a simple feedback controJJer with no knowledge of initial eye position, and provides an error signal for the cerebeJJum to correct for eye-muscle nonIinearities. This teaches the cerebeJJum, modelled as a CMAC, to adjust appropriately the gain on the brainstem burst-generator's internal feedback loop and so alter the size of burst sent to the motoneurons. With direction-only errors the system rapidly learns to make accurate horizontal eye movements from any starting position, and adapts realistically to subsequent simulated eye-muscle weakening or displacement of the saccadic target.


A Neural Net Model for Adaptive Control of Saccadic Accuracy by Primate Cerebellum and Brainstem

Neural Information Processing Systems

Accurate saccades require interaction between brainstem circuitry and the cerebeJJum. A model of this interaction is described, based on Kawato's principle of feedback-error-Iearning. In the model a part of the brainstem (the superior colliculus) acts as a simple feedback controJJer with no knowledge of initial eye position, and provides an error signal for the cerebeJJum to correct for eye-muscle nonIinearities. This teaches the cerebeJJum, modelled as a CMAC, to adjust appropriately the gain on the brainstem burst-generator's internal feedback loop and so alter the size of burst sent to the motoneurons. With direction-only errors the system rapidly learns to make accurate horizontal eye movements from any starting position, and adapts realistically to subsequent simulated eye-muscle weakening or displacement of the saccadic target.


A Neural Net Model for Adaptive Control of Saccadic Accuracy by Primate Cerebellum and Brainstem

Neural Information Processing Systems

Accurate saccades require interaction between brainstem circuitry and the cerebeJJum. A model of this interaction is described, based on Kawato's principle of feedback-error-Iearning. In the model a part of the brainstem (the superior colliculus) acts as a simple feedback controJJer with no knowledge of initial eye position, and provides an error signal for the cerebeJJum to correct for eye-muscle nonIinearities. This teaches the cerebeJJum, modelled as a CMAC, to adjust appropriately the gain on the brainstem burst-generator's internal feedback loop and so alter the size of burst sent to the motoneurons. With direction-only errors the system rapidly learns to make accurate horizontal eye movements from any starting position, and adapts realistically to subsequent simulated eye-muscle weakening or displacement of the saccadic target.


BOXES: An experiment in adaptive control

Classics

In Dale, E. and Michie, D. (Eds.), Machine Intelligence 2, pp. 125-133. Elsevier/North-Holland.