"Can a machine think?" asked Alan Turning in 1950 (in his seminal paper called "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"). This is the first occurrence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) long before the term was coined. After a long period of disappointments, conditions are now ripe according to us for AI to deliver on its initial promises thanks to: the tremendous increase in computing power, the explosion of data generation and collection; the advances in cognitive science and finally the significant increase in data scientists trained at universities around the world. As a result, technologies today enable machines to perform the cognitive functions of sensations (by sensors); concept (by deep learning) and intent (by inference). Simply put, artificial intelligence is the science of self-learning software algorithms that execute tasks otherwise typically performed by humans. Over time, these machines will be equipped to make more decisions, helping us devote more time to higher-order thinking.
Artificial intelligence refers to the simulation of human intelligence in a machine that is programmed to think like humans. The idea of artificial intelligence initially begins by the computer scientist from 1943 to 1956. A model proposed by Alan Turing which is known as the Turing test. A Turing test is an algorithm that computes the data similar to human nature and behavior for proper response. Since this Turing test proposed by Alan Turing which plays one of the most important roles in the development of artificial intelligence, So Alan Turing is known as the father of artificial intelligence.
I propose to consider the question, 'Can machines think?' - Alan Turing, Computing Machinery and Intelligence, 1950. No one really knows, but everyone agrees humans do it, so let's start with the human brain as a model. Your brain consists of billions of neurons, arranged in delicate patterns to coordinate thought, emotion, behavior, and movement. Each neuron is connected with other neurons by synapses, and when something new is learned, a new neuron is created. Electrical signals between the neurons allows them to'communicate', or transfer information.
In 1950, Alan Turing developed the Turing Test as a test of a machine's ability to display human-like intelligent behavior. "Are there imaginable digital computers which would do well in the imitation game?" In most applications of AI, a model is created to imitate the judgment of humans and implement it at scale, be it autonomous vehicles, text summarization, image recognition, or product recommendation. By the nature of imitation, a computer is only able to replicate what humans have done, based on previous data. This doesn't leave room for genuine creativity, which relies on innovation, not imitation.
I propose to consider the question, 'Can machines think?' This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms'machine' and'think'. The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous. If the meaning of the words'machine' and'think' are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the answer to the question, 'Can machines think?' is to be sought in a statistical survey such as a Gallup poll. Instead of attempting such a definition I shall replace the question by another, which is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words. The new form of the problem can be described in terms of a game which we call the'imitation game'. It is played with three people, a man (A), a woman (B), and an interrogator (C) who may be of either sex. The interrogator stays in a room apart from the other two. The object of the ...
A lot has been written, said and discussed in the domain of Artificial Intelligence. From the Turing test conducted by Alan Turing in 1950 which offered an opportunity to understand whether machines can exhibit intelligent behavior to AutoML (Auto machine learning) by google which claims to reduce the dependency on humans to build AI models, the technology has come a long way. However, the question that still intrigues many is whether this new wave of digital intelligence is intelligent enough to create value. This is one of the biggest challenges C-level executives in the manufacturing industry face when they propagate the idea of investing in this technology. Preparing a business case and binding the investment to the RoI, in an asset-heavy industry, becomes a daunting task and many at times hinder the buy-in or progress of such programs across the manufacturing enterprise.
In the seminal paper on AI, titled Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Alan Turing famously asked: "Can machines think?" -- or, more accurately, can machines successfully imitate thought? Turing clarifies that he's interested in machines that "are intended to carry out any operations which could be done by a human computer." In other words, he's interested in complex digital machines. Since the achievement of a thinking digital machine is a matter of the evolution of machines, it reasons to start at the beginning of machine history. A machine is a device that does work.
Artificial intelligence is a bit of a buzz term these days – but what do people really mean when they say AI? And why should local governments care? First of all, AI is extremely misunderstood. We aren't talking about HAL from "2001: A Space Odyssey," necessarily; we're talking about what Alan Turing speculated about "thinking machines" back in the 1950s. According to the Brookings Institute, AI is generally thought to refer to "machines that respond to stimulation consistent with traditional responses from humans, given the human capacity for contemplation, judgment and intention."
This question begs one to define the words "machine" and "think". Instead of defining them -- which is seemingly easy, let's replace the question with one that is very similar. Before that, we introduce the imitation game. The game is played by three. The interrogator is isolated from the other two and can ask each one of them questions, with a goal of identifying who the man and who the woman is.
The concept of AI has been around for many decades. British mathematician Alan Turing proposed in 1950 that it might be possible for machines to use information to reason, solve problems, and make decisions. His framework is the basis of the Turing Test, which says an AI system learns until indistinguishable from a human being in its ability to hold a conversation. In 1956, a team presented proof of concept on AI at the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence. Also in the 1950s, a group of researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) began work that would become the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.