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On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles(e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on standard deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities,and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.


How artificial intelligence is transforming the future of healthcare one step at a time

#artificialintelligence

Projected a few years ago to be a $150 billion industry by 2026, Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems are radically transforming industries around the world and healthcare is no exception to this development. New AI applications are being developed and experimented with to streamline administrative and medical processes, enhance clinical decision making and support, manage long-term care - all of which are showing great promise. AI in healthcare refers to the use of complex algorithms designed to mimic human cognition and perform certain tasks in an automated fashion at a fraction of the time and cost. Simply put, when data is injected into the platform, algorithms, and machine learning solutions kick in, working with the data, using deep data analytics, and delivering outcomes and reports which would be as accurate if not more than human interventions. From making more accurate diagnoses, finding links between genetic codes to powering surgical robots, maximising administrative efficiency, and understanding how patients will respond to treatment plans, there are limitless opportunities to leverage AI in healthcare. Using machine learning in precision medicine can help predict what treatment protocols are likely to succeed based on a patient's attributes, treatment history, and context, allowing more accurate and impactful interventions at the right moment in a patient's care.


The Future Of Artificial Intelligence Is Now - Liwaiwai

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Imagine if doctors, nurses, and health care researchers had the ability to interrogate both the healthy and diseased states of a patient's biology and then use that data to uncover a network of causal relationships between historical, molecular, and other data types to approach treatment or develop the right type of drugs. BERG Health is using this information with a platform that uses artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to examine disparate sets of data from patient biology and electronic medical records. "Artificial intelligence has the potential to disrupt many industries, but perhaps most importantly is its impact on health care, where the unsolved challenge is getting the right treatments to the right patients by utilizing tremendous amounts of experimental and observational data," says Niven Narain, co-founder, president and CEO of BERG Health. "By comparing individual patient health data to the greater population health data, we can develop prescriptive analytics that can determine what treatments will work best for that patient, while also warning patients of potential side effects." AI is a set of complex algorithms and technologies that enables machines, systems and software to make human-like decisions.


A Comparative Approach to Explainable Artificial Intelligence Methods in Application to High-Dimensional Electronic Health Records: Examining the Usability of XAI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is a rising field in AI. It aims to produce a demonstrative factor of trust, which for human subjects is achieved through communicative means, which Machine Learning (ML) algorithms cannot solely produce, illustrating the necessity of an extra layer producing support to the model output. When approaching the medical field, we can see challenges arise when dealing with the involvement of human-subjects, the ideology behind trusting a machine to tend towards the livelihood of a human poses an ethical conundrum - leaving trust as the basis of the human-expert in acceptance to the machines decision. The aim of this paper is to apply XAI methods to demonstrate the usability of explainable architectures as a tertiary layer for the medical domain supporting ML predictions and human-expert opinion, XAI methods produce visualization of the feature contribution towards a given models output on both a local and global level. The work in this paper uses XAI to determine feature importance towards high-dimensional data-driven questions to inform domain-experts of identifiable trends with a comparison of model-agnostic methods in application to ML algorithms. The performance metrics for a glass-box method is also provided as a comparison against black-box capability for tabular data. Future work will aim to produce a user-study using metrics to evaluate human-expert usability and opinion of the given models.


"Brilliant AI Doctor" in Rural China: Tensions and Challenges in AI-Powered CDSS Deployment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) technology has been increasingly used in the implementation of advanced Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS). Research demonstrated the potential usefulness of AI-powered CDSS (AI-CDSS) in clinical decision making scenarios. However, post-adoption user perception and experience remain understudied, especially in developing countries. Through observations and interviews with 22 clinicians from 6 rural clinics in China, this paper reports the various tensions between the design of an AI-CDSS system ("Brilliant Doctor") and the rural clinical context, such as the misalignment with local context and workflow, the technical limitations and usability barriers, as well as issues related to transparency and trustworthiness of AI-CDSS. Despite these tensions, all participants expressed positive attitudes toward the future of AI-CDSS, especially acting as "a doctor's AI assistant" to realize a Human-AI Collaboration future in clinical settings. Finally we draw on our findings to discuss implications for designing AI-CDSS interventions for rural clinical contexts in developing countries.


Explainable Artificial Intelligence Recommendation System by Leveraging the Semantics of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Proof-of-Concept Prototype Development

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The study of adverse childhood experiences and their consequences has emerged over the past 20 years. In this study, we aimed to leverage explainable artificial intelligence, and propose a proof-of-concept prototype for a knowledge-driven evidence-based recommendation system to improve surveillance of adverse childhood experiences. We used concepts from an ontology that we have developed to build and train a question-answering agent using the Google DialogFlow engine. In addition to the question-answering agent, the initial prototype includes knowledge graph generation and recommendation components that leverage third-party graph technology. To showcase the framework functionalities, we here present a prototype design and demonstrate the main features through four use case scenarios motivated by an initiative currently implemented at a children hospital in Memphis, Tennessee. Ongoing development of the prototype requires implementing an optimization algorithm of the recommendations, incorporating a privacy layer through a personal health library, and conducting a clinical trial to assess both usability and usefulness of the implementation. This semantic-driven explainable artificial intelligence prototype can enhance health care practitioners ability to provide explanations for the decisions they make.


Harnessing AI To Reset The Future: How To Channel AI For Social Good?

#artificialintelligence

This article is co-authored with Jonathan Wong, Chief of Technology & Innovation, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP). Electronic medical records are examined by a doctor, a demonstration of remote medicine. As the Fourth Industrial Revolution evolves, frontier technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) are reshaping our economies, societies and the environment. AI is opening up economic opportunities with companies large and small empowered to grow their businesses. From a social perspective, AI provides a host of benefits.


[Full text] Conceptualising Artificial Intelligence as a Digital Healthcare Innova

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Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) is widely recognised as a transformative innovation and is already proving capable of outperforming human clinicians in the diagnosis of specific medical conditions, especially in image analysis within dermatology and radiology. These abilities are enhanced by the capacity of AI systems to learn from patient records, genomic information and real-time patient data. Whilst AI research is mounting, less attention has been paid to the practical implications on healthcare services and potential barriers to implementation. AI is recognised as a "Software as a Medical Device (SaMD)" and is increasingly becoming a topic of interest for regulators. Unless the introduction of AI is carefully considered and gradual, there are risks of automation bias, overdependence and long-term staffing problems. This is in addition to already well-documented generic risks associated with AI, such as data privacy, algorithmic biases and corrigibility.


Where explainable AI will be crucial in industry - TechHQ

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As artificial intelligence (AI) matures and new applications boom amid a transition to Industry 4.0, we are beginning to accept that machines can help us make decisions more effectively and efficiently. But, at present, we don't always have a clear insight into how or why a model made those decisions – this is'blackbox AI'. In light of alleged bias in AI models in applications across recruitment, loan decisions, and healthcare applications, the ability to effectively explain the workings of decisions made by AI model has become imperative for the technology's further development and adoption. In December last year, the UK's Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) began moving to ensure businesses and other organizations are required to explain decisions made by AI by law, or face multimillion-dollar fines if unable. Explainable AI is the concept of being able to describe the procedures, services, and outcomes delivered or assisted by AI when that information is required, such as in the case of accusations of bias.


Explainable artificial intelligence model to predict acute critical illness from electronic health records

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We developed an explainable artificial intelligence (AI) early warning score (xAI-EWS) system for early detection of acute critical illness. While maintaining a high predictive performance, our system explains to the clinician on which relevant electronic health records (EHRs) data the prediction is grounded. Acute critical illness is often preceded by deterioration of routinely measured clinical parameters, e.g., blood pressure and heart rate. Early clinical prediction is typically based on manually calculated screening metrics that simply weigh these parameters, such as Early Warning Scores (EWS). The predictive performance of EWSs yields a tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity that can lead to negative outcomes for the patient. Previous work on EHR-trained AI systems offers promising results with high levels of predictive performance in relation to the early, real-time prediction of acute critical illness. However, without insight into the complex decisions by such system, clinical translation is hindered. In this letter, we present our xAI-EWS system, which potentiates clinical translation by accompanying a prediction with information on the EHR data explaining it.