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Graph Representation Learning for Road Type Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a novel learning-based approach to graph representations of road networks employing state-of-the-art graph convolutional neural networks. Our approach is applied to realistic road networks of 17 cities from Open Street Map. While edge features are crucial to generate descriptive graph representations of road networks, graph convolutional networks usually rely on node features only. We show that the highly representative edge features can still be integrated into such networks by applying a line graph transformation. We also propose a method for neighborhood sampling based on a topological neighborhood composed of both local and global neighbors. We compare the performance of learning representations using different types of neighborhood aggregation functions in transductive and inductive tasks and in supervised and unsupervised learning. Furthermore, we propose a novel aggregation approach, Graph Attention Isomorphism Network, GAIN. Our results show that GAIN outperforms state-of-the-art methods on the road type classification problem.


End-to-End License Plate Recognition Pipeline for Real-time Low Resource Video Based Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Automatic License Plate Recognition systems aim to provide an end-to-end solution towards detecting, localizing, and recognizing license plate characters from vehicles appearing in video frames. However, deploying such systems in the real world requires real-time performance in low-resource environments. In our paper, we propose a novel two-stage detection pipeline paired with Vision API that aims to provide real-time inference speed along with consistently accurate detection and recognition performance. We used a haar-cascade classifier as a filter on top of our backbone MobileNet SSDv2 detection model. This reduces inference time by only focusing on high confidence detections and using them for recognition. We also impose a temporal frame separation strategy to identify multiple vehicle license plates in the same clip. Furthermore, there are no publicly available Bangla license plate datasets, for which we created an image dataset and a video dataset containing license plates in the wild. We trained our models on the image dataset and achieved an AP(0.5) score of 86% and tested our pipeline on the video dataset and observed reasonable detection and recognition performance (82.7% detection rate, and 60.8% OCR F1 score) with real-time processing speed (27.2 frames per second).


Spatio-temporal Parking Behaviour Forecasting and Analysis Before and During COVID-19

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Parking demand forecasting and behaviour analysis have received increasing attention in recent years because of their critical role in mitigating traffic congestion and understanding travel behaviours. However, previous studies usually only consider temporal dependence but ignore the spatial correlations among parking lots for parking prediction. This is mainly due to the lack of direct physical connections or observable interactions between them. Thus, how to quantify the spatial correlation remains a significant challenge. To bridge the gap, in this study, we propose a spatial-aware parking prediction framework, which includes two steps, i.e. spatial connection graph construction and spatio-temporal forecasting. A case study in Ningbo, China is conducted using parking data of over one million records before and during COVID-19. The results show that the approach is superior on parking occupancy forecasting than baseline methods, especially for the cases with high temporal irregularity such as during COVID-19. Our work has revealed the impact of the pandemic on parking behaviour and also accentuated the importance of modelling spatial dependence in parking behaviour forecasting, which can benefit future studies on epidemiology and human travel behaviours.


Deep Reinforcement Learning for Demand Driven Services in Logistics and Transportation Systems: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent technology development brings the booming of numerous new Demand-Driven Services (DDS) into urban lives, including ridesharing, on-demand delivery, express systems and warehousing. In DDS, a service loop is an elemental structure, including its service worker, the service providers and corresponding service targets. The service workers should transport either humans or parcels from the providers to the target locations. Various planning tasks within DDS can thus be classified into two individual stages: 1) Dispatching, which is to form service loops from demand/supply distributions, and 2)Routing, which is to decide specific serving orders within the constructed loops. Generating high-quality strategies in both stages is important to develop DDS but faces several challenging. Meanwhile, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has been developed rapidly in recent years. It is a powerful tool to solve these problems since DRL can learn a parametric model without relying on too many problem-based assumptions and optimize long-term effect by learning sequential decisions. In this survey, we first define DDS, then highlight common applications and important decision/control problems within. For each problem, we comprehensively introduce the existing DRL solutions, and further summarize them in \textit{https://github.com/tsinghua-fib-lab/DDS\_Survey}. We also introduce open simulation environments for development and evaluation of DDS applications. Finally, we analyze remaining challenges and discuss further research opportunities in DRL solutions for DDS.


GANmapper: geographical content filling

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a new method to create spatial data using a generative adversarial network (GAN). Our contribution uses coarse and widely available geospatial data to create maps of less available features at the finer scale in the built environment, bypassing their traditional acquisition techniques (e.g. satellite imagery or land surveying). In the work, we employ land use data and road networks as input to generate building footprints, and conduct experiments in 9 cities around the world. The method, which we implement in a tool we release openly, enables generating approximate maps of the urban form, and it is generalisable to augment other types of geoinformation, enhancing the completeness and quality of spatial data infrastructure. It may be especially useful in locations missing detailed and high-resolution data and those that are mapped with uncertain or heterogeneous quality, such as much of OpenStreetMap. The quality of the results is influenced by the urban form and scale. In most cases, experiments suggest promising performance as the method tends to truthfully indicate the locations, amount, and shape of buildings. The work has the potential to support several applications, such as energy, climate, and urban morphology studies in areas previously lacking required data.


PSTN: Periodic Spatial-temporal Deep Neural Network for Traffic Condition Prediction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Accurate forecasting of traffic conditions is critical for improving safety, stability, and efficiency of a city transportation system. In reality, it is challenging to produce accurate traffic forecasts due to the complex and dynamic spatiotemporal correlations. Most existing works only consider partial characteristics and features of traffic data, and result in unsatisfactory performances on modeling and forecasting. In this paper, we propose a periodic spatial-temporal deep neural network (PSTN) with three pivotal modules to improve the forecasting performance of traffic conditions through a novel integration of three types of information. First, the historical traffic information is folded and fed into a module consisting of a graph convolutional network and a temporal convolutional network. Second, the recent traffic information together with the historical output passes through the second module consisting of a graph convolutional network and a gated recurrent unit framework. Finally, a multi-layer perceptron is applied to process the auxiliary road attributes and output the final predictions. Experimental results on two publicly accessible real-world urban traffic data sets show that the proposed PSTN outperforms the state-of-the-art benchmarks by significant margins for short-term traffic conditions forecasting


Modelling and Reasoning Techniques for Context Aware Computing in Intelligent Transportation System

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The emergence of Internet of Things technology and recent advancement in sensor networks enabled transportation systems to a new dimension called Intelligent Transportation System. Due to increased usage of vehicles and communication among entities in road traffic scenarios, the amount of raw data generation in Intelligent Transportation System is huge. This raw data are to be processed to infer contextual information and provide new services related to different modes of road transport such as traffic signal management, accident prediction, object detection etc. To understand the importance of context, this article aims to study context awareness in the Intelligent Transportation System. We present a review on prominent applications developed in the literature concerning context awareness in the intelligent transportation system. The objective of this research paper is to highlight context and its features in ITS and to address the applicability of modelling techniques and reasoning approaches in Intelligent Transportation System. Also to shed light on impact of Internet of Things and machine learning in Intelligent Transportation System development.


RTA uses artificial intelligence, high-tech to improve bus services

#artificialintelligence

His Excellency Mattar Mohammed Al Tayer, Director-General, Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors of Roads and Transport Authority (RTA), revealed that RTA's precautionary measures and initiatives applied to the scheduling and the operation of public buses, marine transit means and taxis had accelerated the recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic. He stated that such measures contributed to restoring the growth of public transport ridership to 70% of the pre-Covid-19 levels. They also contributed to reducing the number of kilometres travelled by 18%, improving bus on-time arrival by 6%, and cutting carbon emissions by 34 metric tons. "In cooperation with Alibaba Cloud, RTA has recently started trialling the'City Brain' system to manage traffic in urban areas using artificial intelligence and advanced algorithms. The system analysis a massive number of big data received from nol cards, operating buses and taxis as well as the Enterprise Command and Control Centre. Then it converts the data into useful information that could be used in sending instant notifications and improving bus schedules and routes. The system is expected to improve the bus ridership by 17%, average waiting time by 10%, and the journey time and the average bus usage by 5%," stated Al Tayer.


A Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach for Fair Traffic Signal Control

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Traffic signal control is one of the most effective methods of traffic management in urban areas. In recent years, traffic control methods based on deep reinforcement learning (DRL) have gained attention due to their ability to exploit real-time traffic data, which is often poorly used by the traditional hand-crafted methods. While most recent DRL-based methods have focused on maximizing the throughput or minimizing the average travel time of the vehicles, the fairness of the traffic signal controllers has often been neglected. This is particularly important as neglecting fairness can lead to situations where some vehicles experience extreme waiting times, or where the throughput of a particular traffic flow is highly impacted by the fluctuations of another conflicting flow at the intersection. In order to address these issues, we introduce two notions of fairness: delay-based and throughput-based fairness, which correspond to the two issues mentioned above. Furthermore, we propose two DRL-based traffic signal control methods for implementing these fairness notions, that can achieve a high throughput as well. We evaluate the performance of our proposed methods using three traffic arrival distributions, and find that our methods outperform the baselines in the tested scenarios.


18 5G projects providing a vision for the future

#artificialintelligence

The Internet of Things (IoT) – and what it will enable – has been a discussion point for well over a decade, but the speed, low latency and reliability of 5G promise to bring the concept to life. Network slicing will allow a wide range of product types, with distinct reliability and throughput requirements, to be run out of the same architecture, and edge computing will allow nodes to communicate directly with one another, bypassing the network's core and enhancing speed and reliability. These characteristics underpin some the most interesting projects currently making use of 5G, and have made a plethora of 5G use cases possible. Here are 18 of the best. Robots are already widely used in factories, particularly in the automotive industry.