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Future of AI & 5G Part 4: Driving Cleaner Economic Growth & Jobs

#artificialintelligence

Governments, investors and business leaders need to adopt practical solutions that can be deployed across the world at scale. The arrival of 5G along with wider adoption of AI technology into the physical world will make it possible to substantially enhance the opportunities to scale cleaner energy generation technologies, enable efficiency gains in manufacturing, our homes, retail stores, offices and transportation that will enable substantial reductions in pollution. Policies that incentivise the accelerated development and deployment of Industry 4.0 solutions will require politicians and regulators to better understand the opportunities that 5G alongside AI will enable. The OECD published a paper "What works in Innovation Policy" and observed that "Policies ignoring or resisting the industrial transition have proven to be not just futile but result in an innovative disadvantage and weak economic performance." Entering the new year will allow us to develop and deploy solutions for the 2020s that make use of the next industrial revolution with 5G and AI to enable dramatic efficiency gains across all sectors of the economy and to enhance renewable energy generation. The emergence of India, China and others as industrial economic powers is occurring at a time when we now know the damage that such pollution causes and hence there is a need to work together, collaboratively to solve a global problem. Embracing technological change and enhancing its capabilities to deliver better living standards alongside sustainable development is the best option for those who really want to make an impact on climate change at scale in the 2020s and beyond. I wish to thank Henry Derwent, former advisor to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and former CEO of IETA for his efforts to promote technological innovation and scaled up financing with Green Bonds.


The AI Index 2021 Annual Report

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Welcome to the fourth edition of the AI Index Report. This year we significantly expanded the amount of data available in the report, worked with a broader set of external organizations to calibrate our data, and deepened our connections with the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence (HAI). The AI Index Report tracks, collates, distills, and visualizes data related to artificial intelligence. Its mission is to provide unbiased, rigorously vetted, and globally sourced data for policymakers, researchers, executives, journalists, and the general public to develop intuitions about the complex field of AI. The report aims to be the most credible and authoritative source for data and insights about AI in the world.


AI: Facebook's new algorithm was trained on one billion Instagram pics

ZDNet

Facebook's researchers have unveiled a new AI model that can learn from any random group of unlabeled images on the internet. Facebook's researchers have unveiled a new AI model that can learn from any random group of unlabeled images on the internet, in a breakthrough that, although still in its early stages, the team expects to generate a "revolution" in computer vision. Dubbed SEER (SElf-SupERvised), the model was fed one billion publicly available Instagram images, which had not previously been manually curated. But even without the labels and annotations that typically go into algorithm training, SEER was able to autonomously work its way through the dataset, learning as it was going, and eventually achieving top levels of accuracy on tasks such as object detection. The method, aptly named self-supervised learning, is already well-established in the field of AI: it consists of creating systems that can learn directly from the information they are given, without having to rely on carefully labeled datasets to teach them how to perform a task such as recognizing an object in a photo or translating a block of text.


Adversarial Robustness with Non-uniform Perturbations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Robustness of machine learning models is critical for security related applications, where real-world adversaries are uniquely focused on evading neural network based detectors. Prior work mainly focus on crafting adversarial examples with small uniform norm-bounded perturbations across features to maintain the requirement of imperceptibility. Although such approaches are valid for images, uniform perturbations do not result in realistic adversarial examples in domains such as malware, finance, and social networks. For these types of applications, features typically have some semantically meaningful dependencies. The key idea of our proposed approach is to enable non-uniform perturbations that can adequately represent these feature dependencies during adversarial training. We propose using characteristics of the empirical data distribution, both on correlations between the features and the importance of the features themselves. Using experimental datasets for malware classification, credit risk prediction, and spam detection, we show that our approach is more robust to real-world attacks. Our approach can be adapted to other domains where non-uniform perturbations more accurately represent realistic adversarial examples.


An AutoML-based Approach to Multimodal Image Sentiment Analysis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Sentiment analysis is a research topic focused on analysing data to extract information related to the sentiment that it causes. Applications of sentiment analysis are wide, ranging from recommendation systems, and marketing to customer satisfaction. Recent approaches evaluate textual content using Machine Learning techniques that are trained over large corpora. However, as social media grown, other data types emerged in large quantities, such as images. Sentiment analysis in images has shown to be a valuable complement to textual data since it enables the inference of the underlying message polarity by creating context and connections. Multimodal sentiment analysis approaches intend to leverage information of both textual and image content to perform an evaluation. Despite recent advances, current solutions still flounder in combining both image and textual information to classify social media data, mainly due to subjectivity, inter-class homogeneity and fusion data differences. In this paper, we propose a method that combines both textual and image individual sentiment analysis into a final fused classification based on AutoML, that performs a random search to find the best model. Our method achieved state-of-the-art performance in the B-T4SA dataset, with 95.19% accuracy.


TI-Capsule: Capsule Network for Stock Exchange Prediction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Today, the use of social networking data has attracted a lot of academic and commercial attention in predicting the stock market. In most studies in this area, the sentiment analysis of the content of user posts on social networks is used to predict market fluctuations. Predicting stock marketing is challenging because of the variables involved. In the short run, the market behaves like a voting machine, but in the long run, it acts like a weighing machine. The purpose of this study is to predict EUR/USD stock behavior using Capsule Network on finance texts and Candlestick images. One of the most important features of Capsule Network is the maintenance of features in a vector, which also takes into account the space between features. The proposed model, TI-Capsule (Text and Image information based Capsule Neural Network), is trained with both the text and image information simultaneously. Extensive experiments carried on the collected dataset have demonstrated the effectiveness of TI-Capsule in solving the stock exchange prediction problem with 91% accuracy.


"Short is the Road that Leads from Fear to Hate": Fear Speech in Indian WhatsApp Groups

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

WhatsApp is the most popular messaging app in the world. Due to its popularity, WhatsApp has become a powerful and cheap tool for political campaigning being widely used during the 2019 Indian general election, where it was used to connect to the voters on a large scale. Along with the campaigning, there have been reports that WhatsApp has also become a breeding ground for harmful speech against various protected groups and religious minorities. Many such messages attempt to instil fear among the population about a specific (minority) community. According to research on inter-group conflict, such `fear speech' messages could have a lasting impact and might lead to real offline violence. In this paper, we perform the first large scale study on fear speech across thousands of public WhatsApp groups discussing politics in India. We curate a new dataset and try to characterize fear speech from this dataset. We observe that users writing fear speech messages use various events and symbols to create the illusion of fear among the reader about a target community. We build models to classify fear speech and observe that current state-of-the-art NLP models do not perform well at this task. Fear speech messages tend to spread faster and could potentially go undetected by classifiers built to detect traditional toxic speech due to their low toxic nature. Finally, using a novel methodology to target users with Facebook ads, we conduct a survey among the users of these WhatsApp groups to understand the types of users who consume and share fear speech. We believe that this work opens up new research questions that are very different from tackling hate speech which the research community has been traditionally involved in.


High-level Approaches to Detect Malicious Political Activity on Twitter

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Our work represents another step into the detection and prevention of these ever-more present political manipulation efforts. We, therefore, start by focusing on understanding what the state-of-the-art approaches lack -- since the problem remains, this is a fair assumption. We find concerning issues within the current literature and follow a diverging path. Notably, by placing emphasis on using data features that are less susceptible to malicious manipulation and also on looking for high-level approaches that avoid a granularity level that is biased towards easy-to-spot and low impact cases. We designed and implemented a framework -- Twitter Watch -- that performs structured Twitter data collection, applying it to the Portuguese Twittersphere. We investigate a data snapshot taken on May 2020, with around 5 million accounts and over 120 million tweets (this value has since increased to over 175 million). The analyzed time period stretches from August 2019 to May 2020, with a focus on the Portuguese elections of October 6th, 2019. However, the Covid-19 pandemic showed itself in our data, and we also delve into how it affected typical Twitter behavior. We performed three main approaches: content-oriented, metadata-oriented, and network interaction-oriented. We learn that Twitter's suspension patterns are not adequate to the type of political trolling found in the Portuguese Twittersphere -- identified by this work and by an independent peer - nor to fake news posting accounts. We also surmised that the different types of malicious accounts we independently gathered are very similar both in terms of content and interaction, through two distinct analysis, and are simultaneously very distinct from regular accounts.


Privacy Information Classification: A Hybrid Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A large amount of information has been published to online social networks every day. Individual privacy-related information is also possibly disclosed unconsciously by the end-users. Identifying privacy-related data and protecting the online social network users from privacy leakage turn out to be significant. Under such a motivation, this study aims to propose and develop a hybrid privacy classification approach to detect and classify privacy information from OSNs. The proposed hybrid approach employs both deep learning models and ontology-based models for privacy-related information extraction. Extensive experiments are conducted to validate the proposed hybrid approach, and the empirical results demonstrate its superiority in assisting online social network users against privacy leakage.


Interpretable Multi-Head Self-Attention model for Sarcasm Detection in social media

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Sarcasm is a linguistic expression often used to communicate the opposite of what is said, usually something that is very unpleasant with an intention to insult or ridicule. Inherent ambiguity in sarcastic expressions, make sarcasm detection very difficult. In this work, we focus on detecting sarcasm in textual conversations from various social networking platforms and online media. To this end, we develop an interpretable deep learning model using multi-head self-attention and gated recurrent units. Multi-head self-attention module aids in identifying crucial sarcastic cue-words from the input, and the recurrent units learn long-range dependencies between these cue-words to better classify the input text. We show the effectiveness of our approach by achieving state-of-the-art results on multiple datasets from social networking platforms and online media. Models trained using our proposed approach are easily interpretable and enable identifying sarcastic cues in the input text which contribute to the final classification score. We visualize the learned attention weights on few sample input texts to showcase the effectiveness and interpretability of our model.