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The Glorious Utility of the Mid-Range Phone

WIRED

If you can do without all the beefed-up chips, six-pack cameras, and lidars of the $1,000 handsets, mid-range options get the job done for not a lot of cash. Sometimes you even get more from the cheaper phones, like an actual headphone jack. This week, Motorola and OnePlus announced some new phones that fall into that group. Lenovo-owned Moto has two new options. The Moto G 5G is the most basic.


Technology Ethics in Action: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This special issue interrogates the meaning and impacts of "tech ethics": the embedding of ethics into digital technology research, development, use, and governance. In response to concerns about the social harms associated with digital technologies, many individuals and institutions have articulated the need for a greater emphasis on ethics in digital technology. Yet as more groups embrace the concept of ethics, critical discourses have emerged questioning whose ethics are being centered, whether "ethics" is the appropriate frame for improving technology, and what it means to develop "ethical" technology in practice. This interdisciplinary issue takes up these questions, interrogating the relationships among ethics, technology, and society in action. This special issue engages with the normative and contested notions of ethics itself, how ethics has been integrated with technology across domains, and potential paths forward to support more just and egalitarian technology. Rather than starting from philosophical theories, the authors in this issue orient their articles around the real-world discourses and impacts of tech ethics--i.e., tech ethics in action.


Socially Responsible AI Algorithms: Issues, Purposes, and Challenges

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

In the current era, people and society have grown increasingly reliant on artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. AI has the potential to drive us towards a future in which all of humanity flourishes. It also comes with substantial risks for oppression and calamity. Discussions about whether we should (re)trust AI have repeatedly emerged in recent years and in many quarters, including industry, academia, healthcare, services, and so on. Technologists and AI researchers have a responsibility to develop trustworthy AI systems. They have responded with great effort to design more responsible AI algorithms. However, existing technical solutions are narrow in scope and have been primarily directed towards algorithms for scoring or classification tasks, with an emphasis on fairness and unwanted bias. To build long-lasting trust between AI and human beings, we argue that the key is to think beyond algorithmic fairness and connect major aspects of AI that potentially cause AI’s indifferent behavior. In this survey, we provide a systematic framework of Socially Responsible AI Algorithms that aims to examine the subjects of AI indifference and the need for socially responsible AI algorithms, define the objectives, and introduce the means by which we may achieve these objectives. We further discuss how to leverage this framework to improve societal well-being through protection, information, and prevention/mitigation. This article appears in the special track on AI & Society.


Twitter User Representation using Weakly Supervised Graph Embedding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Social media platforms provide convenient means for users to participate in multiple online activities on various contents and create fast widespread interactions. However, this rapidly growing access has also increased the diverse information, and characterizing user types to understand people's lifestyle decisions shared in social media is challenging. In this paper, we propose a weakly supervised graph embedding based framework for understanding user types. We evaluate the user embedding learned using weak supervision over well-being related tweets from Twitter, focusing on 'Yoga', 'Keto diet'. Experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed framework outperforms the baselines for detecting user types. Finally, we illustrate data analysis on different types of users (e.g., practitioner vs. promotional) from our dataset. While we focus on lifestyle-related tweets (i.e., yoga, keto), our method for constructing user representation readily generalizes to other domains.


The Role of Social Movements, Coalitions, and Workers in Resisting Harmful Artificial Intelligence and Contributing to the Development of Responsible AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is mounting public concern over the influence that AI based systems has in our society. Coalitions in all sectors are acting worldwide to resist hamful applications of AI. From indigenous people addressing the lack of reliable data, to smart city stakeholders, to students protesting the academic relationships with sex trafficker and MIT donor Jeffery Epstein, the questionable ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny. There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions of AI will be to make us ultimately understand how important human wisdom truly is in life on earth.


Analysis of Twitter Users' Lifestyle Choices using Joint Embedding Model

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Multiview representation learning of data can help construct coherent and contextualized users' representations on social media. This paper suggests a joint embedding model, incorporating users' social and textual information to learn contextualized user representations used for understanding their lifestyle choices. We apply our model to tweets related to two lifestyle activities, `Yoga' and `Keto diet' and use it to analyze users' activity type and motivation. We explain the data collection and annotation process in detail and provide an in-depth analysis of users from different classes based on their Twitter content. Our experiments show that our model results in performance improvements in both domains.


Artificial Intelligence for Social Good: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Its impact is drastic and real: Youtube's AIdriven recommendation system would present sports videos for days if one happens to watch a live baseball game on the platform [1]; email writing becomes much faster with machine learning (ML) based auto-completion [2]; many businesses have adopted natural language processing based chatbots as part of their customer services [3]. AI has also greatly advanced human capabilities in complex decision-making processes ranging from determining how to allocate security resources to protect airports [4] to games such as poker [5] and Go [6]. All such tangible and stunning progress suggests that an "AI summer" is happening. As some put it, "AI is the new electricity" [7]. Meanwhile, in the past decade, an emerging theme in the AI research community is the so-called "AI for social good" (AI4SG): researchers aim at developing AI methods and tools to address problems at the societal level and improve the wellbeing of the society.


The Automated Copywriter: Algorithmic Rephrasing of Health-Related Advertisements to Improve their Performance

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Search advertising is one of the most commonly-used methods of advertising. Past work has shown that search advertising can be employed to improve health by eliciting positive behavioral change. However, writing effective advertisements requires expertise and (possible expensive) experimentation, both of which may not be available to public health authorities wishing to elicit such behavioral changes, especially when dealing with a public health crises such as epidemic outbreaks. Here we develop an algorithm which builds on past advertising data to train a sequence-to-sequence Deep Neural Network which "translates" advertisements into optimized ads that are more likely to be clicked. The network is trained using more than 114 thousands ads shown on Microsoft Advertising. We apply this translator to two health related domains: Medical Symptoms (MS) and Preventative Healthcare (PH) and measure the improvements in click-through rates (CTR). Our experiments show that the generated ads are predicted to have higher CTR in 81% of MS ads and 76% of PH ads. To understand the differences between the generated ads and the original ones we develop estimators for the affective attributes of the ads. We show that the generated ads contain more calls-to-action and that they reflect higher valence (36% increase) and higher arousal (87%) on a sample of 1000 ads. Finally, we run an advertising campaign where 10 random ads and their rephrased versions from each of the domains are run in parallel. We show an average improvement in CTR of 68% for the generated ads compared to the original ads. Our results demonstrate the ability to automatically optimize advertisement for the health domain. We believe that our work offers health authorities an improved ability to help nudge people towards healthier behaviors while saving the time and cost needed to optimize advertising campaigns.


The 2018 Survey: AI and the Future of Humans

#artificialintelligence

"Please think forward to the year 2030. Analysts expect that people will become even more dependent on networked artificial intelligence (AI) in complex digital systems. Some say we will continue on the historic arc of augmenting our lives with mostly positive results as we widely implement these networked tools. Some say our increasing dependence on these AI and related systems is likely to lead to widespread difficulties. Our question: By 2030, do you think it is most likely that advancing AI and related technology systems will enhance human capacities and empower them? That is, most of the time, will most people be better off than they are today? Or is it most likely that advancing AI and related technology systems will lessen human autonomy and agency to such an extent that most people will not be better off than the way things are today? Please explain why you chose the answer you did and sketch out a vision of how the human-machine/AI collaboration will function in 2030.


Ex-Twit: Explainable Twitter Mining on Health Data

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This research question is one of the main motivations of our work to explain the prediction of model. Since most machine learning models provide no Twitter has been growing in popularity and now-a-days, it explanations for the predictions, their predictions is used everyday by people to express opinions about different are obscure for the human. The ability to explain topics, such as products, movies, health, music, politicians, a model's prediction has become a necessity events, among others. Twitter data constitutes a rich in many applications including Twitter mining. In source that can be used for capturing information about any this work, we propose a method called Explainable topic imaginable. This data can be used in different use cases Twitter Mining (Ex-Twit) combining Topic Modeling such as finding trends related to a specific keyword, measuring and Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanation brand sentiment, and gathering feedback about new products (LIME) to predict the topic and explain the and services. In this work, we use text mining to mine the model predictions. We demonstrate the effectiveness Twitter health-related data. Text mining is the application of of Ex-Twit on Twitter health-related data.