The connection of the human brain and computers (or machines in general) sounds like science fiction -- like a technology from a utopian (or dystopian) future. However, the development of modern brain-computer interfaces (or BCIs) started almost 100 years ago, when Hans Berger discovered electrical activity of the human brain and measured these signals through a method that later became known as electroencephalography, or simply EEG. Nowadays, BCIs already have many different applications, but we are only at the beginning and might see some impressive advances in the near future. Before getting to the current applications of BCIs and some speculation of their future uses, we will first introduce different approaches to "read the mind", or more scientifically, to measure brain activity. We will finish with a discussion of ethical issues connected to BCIs.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems based solely on neural networks or symbolic computation present a representational complexity challenge. While minimal representations can produce behavioral outputs like locomotion or simple decision-making, more elaborate internal representations might offer a richer variety of behaviors. We propose that these issues can be addressed with a computational approach we call meta-brain models. Meta-brain models are embodied hybrid models that include layered components featuring varying degrees of representational complexity. We will propose combinations of layers composed using specialized types of models. Rather than using a generic black box approach to unify each component, this relationship mimics systems like the neocortical-thalamic system relationship of the Mammalian brain, which utilizes both feedforward and feedback connectivity to facilitate functional communication. Importantly, the relationship between layers can be made anatomically explicit. This allows for structural specificity that can be incorporated into the model's function in interesting ways. We will propose several types of layers that might be functionally integrated into agents that perform unique types of tasks, from agents that simultaneously perform morphogenesis and perception, to agents that undergo morphogenesis and the acquisition of conceptual representations simultaneously. Our approach to meta-brain models involves creating models with different degrees of representational complexity, creating a layered meta-architecture that mimics the structural and functional heterogeneity of biological brains, and an input/output methodology flexible enough to accommodate cognitive functions, social interactions, and adaptive behaviors more generally. We will conclude by proposing next steps in the development of this flexible and open-source approach.
Would you like to have a chip inside your brain? One that could increase your capacity to think, feel, and handle situations? If so, you don't have to wait too much longer: Scientists have made significant breakthroughs in developing brain-computer interfaces. Would you sign up for a brain chip? This August, Elon Musk presented a new iteration of the Neuralink brain implant. The goal is to give human brains a direct interface to digital devices, helping, for instance, paralyzed humans, allowing them to control phones or computers.
Xzistor Concept instantiations can easily me designed'different from humans' to make them excel at certain tasks. For instance we can provide an Xzistor robot with extreme eyesight (augmented with microscopic vision) and an Urgency To Restore (UTR) function that causes Deprivation when cancerous moles cannot be found on a patient's body. It feels reward (Satiation) when a doctor or analyzer signal a positive identification. After this it starts to feel Deprivation again and starts looking for the next malignant mole. It will learn to only search on the patient's body and learn intermediate tasks like comparing the moles with what is in its memory or on the Internet to recommend a positive identification.
The Transform Technology Summits start October 13th with Low-Code/No Code: Enabling Enterprise Agility. Eight months in, 2021 has already become a record year in brain-computer interface (BCI) funding, tripling the $97 million raised in 2019. BCIs translate human brainwaves into machine-understandable commands, allowing people to operate a computer, for example, with their mind. Just during the last couple of weeks, Elon Musk's BCI company, Neuralink, announced a $205 million in Series C funding, with Paradromics, another BCI firm, announcing a $20 million Seed round a few days earlier. Almost at the same time, Neuralink competitor Synchron announced it has received the groundbreaking go-ahead from the FDA to run clinical trials for its flagship product, the Stentrode, with human patients. Even before this approval, Synchron's Stentrode was already undergoing clinical trials in Australia, with four patients having received the implant.
Elon Musk might be well positioned in space travel and electric vehicles, but the world's second-richest person is taking a backseat when it comes to a brain-computer interface (BCI). New York-based Synchron announced Wednesday that it has received approval from the Food and Drug Administration to begin clinical trials of its Stentrode motor neuroprosthesis - a brain implant it is hoped could ultimately be used to cure paralysis. The FDA approved Synchron's Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) application, according to a release, paving the way for an early feasibility study of Stentrode to begin later this year at New York's Mount Sinai Hospital. New York-based Synchron announced Wednesday that it has received FDA approval to begin clinical trials of Stentrode, its brain-computer interface, beating Elon Musk's Neuralink to a crucial benchmark. The study will analyze the safety and efficacy of the device, smaller than a matchstick, in six patients with severe paralysis. Meanwhile, Musk has been touting Neuralink, his brain-implant startup, for several years--most recently showing a video of a monkey with the chip playing Pong using only signals from its brain.
Summary: Researchers created a new human brain model using machine learning-based optimization of required user profile information. We all like to think that we know ourselves best, but, given that our brain activity is largely governed by our subconscious mind, it is probably our brain that knows us better! While this is only a hypothesis, researchers from Japan have already proposed a content recommendation system that assumes this to be true. Essentially, such a system makes use of its user's brain signals (acquired using, say, an MRI scan) when exposed to particular content and eventually, by exploring various users and contents, builds up a general model of brain activity. "Once we obtain the'ultimate' brain model, we should be able to perfectly estimate the brain activity of a person exposed to a specific content," says Prof. Ryoichi Shinkuma from Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan, who was a part of the team that came up with the idea.
The term brain chip sounds like something in a science fiction movie from the 80s. Technology is evolving faster than ever and the future is here. Disruptive innovation will be happening in all industries due to artificial intelligence. This video has Elon Musk demonstrating how the brain chip works in real time on a pig. How far are we til we interview a person with a brain chip vs a person without a brain chip?
Elon Musk's Neuralink touts its brain chip as a way to help people suffering with mobility issues regain control of their lives, but has also proposed using the technology to merge humans with computer. The move would provide the average person with super-human intelligence that hooks their brain up to the cloud where memories can be stored, thoughts can be exchanged and experiences can be had. Although the abilities of an implanted chip may sound limitless, such wonders come with great responsibilities that Musk, scientists and other companies need to address – specifically privacy. 'If the widespread use becomes hooking us to the cloud, not as therapies, and merge humans with AI the economic model will be to sell our data,' Dr. Susan Schneider, the founding director of the new Center for the Future Mind, told Daily Mail. 'Our inner most thoughts would be sold to the highest bidder.
Elon Musk's Neuralink has shown off its latest brain implant by making a monkey play Pong with its mind, and the firm hopes to test on human volunteers next. The brain computer interface was implanted in a nine year old macaque monkey called Pager, who was first taught to play video games with a joystick. The device in his brain recorded information about the neurons firing while he played the game, learning to predict the movements he would make. Once the Neuralink device was ready the joystick was removed and the monkey was able to go on to play the game Pong purely with his brain computer interface. Musk said on Twitter: 'Soon our monkey will be on twitch & discord,' referring to the popular services where gamers stream their play for people watching at home.