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AI in the Age of the Smart Hospital

#artificialintelligence

While talking about Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare might sound futuristic, the first proof of concept for AI application took place in the late 1950s1. In the 1970s, researchers at Stanford developed the MYCIN program to help doctors identify blood infections.2 At Intel, we've had the opportunity to see many different types of AI applications in use by our partners in the healthcare industry, from AI-enabled robots that can help clean hospital rooms to algorithms that can perform real-time inference on endoscopic cameras. Many of these AI implementations rely on edge computing, or the ability to process and compute data close to where it originates -- either on a network-connected device or right next to the device. AI at the edge means that data can be processed and analyzed quickly -- before it goes to the cloud or a server for storage.


Roadmap on Signal Processing for Next Generation Measurement Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Signal processing is a fundamental component of almost any sensor-enabled system, with a wide range of applications across different scientific disciplines. Time series data, images, and video sequences comprise representative forms of signals that can be enhanced and analysed for information extraction and quantification. The recent advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning are shifting the research attention towards intelligent, data-driven, signal processing. This roadmap presents a critical overview of the state-of-the-art methods and applications aiming to highlight future challenges and research opportunities towards next generation measurement systems. It covers a broad spectrum of topics ranging from basic to industrial research, organized in concise thematic sections that reflect the trends and the impacts of current and future developments per research field. Furthermore, it offers guidance to researchers and funding agencies in identifying new prospects.


Use of machine learning in geriatric clinical care for chronic diseases: a systematic literature review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Objectives-Geriatric clinical care is a multidisciplinary assessment designed to evaluate older patients (age 65 years and above) functional ability, physical health, and cognitive wellbeing. The majority of these patients suffer from multiple chronic conditions and require special attention. Recently, hospitals utilize various artificial intelligence (AI) systems to improve care for elderly patients. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to understand the current use of AI systems, particularly machine learning (ML), in geriatric clinical care for chronic diseases. Materials and Methods-We restricted our search to eight databases, namely PubMed, WorldCat, MEDLINE, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Wiley, and ERIC, to analyze research articles published in English between January 2010 and June 2019. We focused on studies that used ML algorithms in the care of geriatrics patients with chronic conditions. Results-We identified 35 eligible studies and classified in three groups-psychological disorder (n=22), eye diseases (n=6), and others (n=7). This review identified the lack of standardized ML evaluation metrics and the need for data governance specific to health care applications. Conclusion- More studies and ML standardization tailored to health care applications are required to confirm whether ML could aid in improving geriatric clinical care.


Natural Language Processing for Smart Healthcare

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Smart healthcare has achieved significant progress in recent years. Emerging artificial intelligence (AI) technologies enable various smart applications across various healthcare scenarios. As an essential technology powered by AI, natural language processing (NLP) plays a key role in smart healthcare due to its capability of analysing and understanding human language. In this work we review existing studies that concern NLP for smart healthcare from the perspectives of technique and application. We focus on feature extraction and modelling for various NLP tasks encountered in smart healthcare from a technical point of view. In the context of smart healthcare applications employing NLP techniques, the elaboration largely attends to representative smart healthcare scenarios, including clinical practice, hospital management, personal care, public health, and drug development. We further discuss the limitations of current works and identify the directions for future works.


On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles(e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on standard deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities,and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.


The Role of Social Movements, Coalitions, and Workers in Resisting Harmful Artificial Intelligence and Contributing to the Development of Responsible AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is mounting public concern over the influence that AI based systems has in our society. Coalitions in all sectors are acting worldwide to resist hamful applications of AI. From indigenous people addressing the lack of reliable data, to smart city stakeholders, to students protesting the academic relationships with sex trafficker and MIT donor Jeffery Epstein, the questionable ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny. There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions of AI will be to make us ultimately understand how important human wisdom truly is in life on earth.


"Brilliant AI Doctor" in Rural China: Tensions and Challenges in AI-Powered CDSS Deployment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) technology has been increasingly used in the implementation of advanced Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS). Research demonstrated the potential usefulness of AI-powered CDSS (AI-CDSS) in clinical decision making scenarios. However, post-adoption user perception and experience remain understudied, especially in developing countries. Through observations and interviews with 22 clinicians from 6 rural clinics in China, this paper reports the various tensions between the design of an AI-CDSS system ("Brilliant Doctor") and the rural clinical context, such as the misalignment with local context and workflow, the technical limitations and usability barriers, as well as issues related to transparency and trustworthiness of AI-CDSS. Despite these tensions, all participants expressed positive attitudes toward the future of AI-CDSS, especially acting as "a doctor's AI assistant" to realize a Human-AI Collaboration future in clinical settings. Finally we draw on our findings to discuss implications for designing AI-CDSS interventions for rural clinical contexts in developing countries.


Generative Adversarial Networks Applied to Observational Health Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Having been collected for its primary purpose in patient care, Observational Health Data (OHD) can further benefit patient well-being by sustaining the development of health informatics. However, the potential for secondary usage of OHD continues to be hampered by the fiercely private nature of patient-related data. Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have recently emerged as a groundbreaking approach to efficiently learn generative models that produce realistic Synthetic Data (SD). However, the application of GAN to OHD seems to have been lagging in comparison to other fields. We conducted a review of GAN algorithms for OHD in the published literature, and report our findings here.


Who wants accurate models? Arguing for a different metrics to take classification models seriously

arXiv.org Machine Learning

With the increasing availability of AI-based decision support, there is an increasing need for their certification by both AI manufacturers and notified bodies, as well as the pragmatic (real-world) validation of these systems. Therefore, there is the need for meaningful and informative ways to assess the performance of AI systems in clinical practice. Common metrics (like accuracy scores and areas under the ROC curve) have known problems and they do not take into account important information about the preferences of clinicians and the needs of their specialist practice, like the likelihood and impact of errors and the complexity of cases. In this paper, we present a new accuracy measure, the H-accuracy (Ha), which we claim is more informative in the medical domain (and others of similar needs) for the elements it encompasses. We also provide proof that the H-accuracy is a generalization of the balanced accuracy and establish a relation between the H-accuracy and the Net Benefit. Finally, we illustrate an experimentation in two user studies to show the descriptive power of the Ha score and how complementary and differently informative measures can be derived from its formulation (a Python script to compute Ha is also made available).