This primer explores the exciting subject of intelligence. Intelligence is a fundamental component of all living things, as well as Artificial Intelligence(AI). Artificial Intelligence has the potential to affect all of our lives and a new era for modern humans. This paper is an attempt to explore the ideas associated with intelligence, and by doing so understand the implications, constraints, and potentially the capabilities of future Artificial Intelligence. As an exploration, we journey into different parts of intelligence that appear essential. We hope that people find this useful in determining where Artificial Intelligence may be headed. Also, during the exploration, we hope to create new thought-provoking questions. Intelligence is not a single weighable quantity but a subject that spans Biology, Physics, Philosophy, Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, Psychology, and Computer Science. Historian Yuval Noah Harari pointed out that engineers and scientists in the future will have to broaden their understandings to include disciplines such as Psychology, Philosophy, and Ethics. Fiction writers have long portrayed engineers and scientists as deficient in these areas. Today, modern society, the emergence of Artificial Intelligence, and legal requirements all act as forcing functions to push these broader subjects into the foreground. We start with an introduction to intelligence and move quickly onto more profound thoughts and ideas. We call this a Life, the Universe and Everything primer, after the famous science fiction book by Douglas Adams. Forty-two may very well be the right answer, but what are the questions?
Self-organization of complex morphological patterns from local interactions is a fascinating phenomenon in many natural and artificial systems. In the artificial world, typical examples of such morphogenetic systems are cellular automata. Yet, their mechanisms are often very hard to grasp and so far scientific discoveries of novel patterns have primarily been relying on manual tuning and ad hoc exploratory search. The problem of automated diversity-driven discovery in these systems was recently introduced [26, 61], highlighting that two key ingredients are autonomous exploration and unsupervised representation learning to describe "relevant" degrees of variations in the patterns. In this paper, we motivate the need for what we call Meta-diversity search, arguing that there is not a unique ground truth interesting diversity as it strongly depends on the final observer and its motives. Using a continuous game-of-life system for experiments, we provide empirical evidences that relying on monolithic architectures for the behavioral embedding design tends to bias the final discoveries (both for hand-defined and unsupervisedly-learned features) which are unlikely to be aligned with the interest of a final end-user. To address these issues, we introduce a novel dynamic and modular architecture that enables unsupervised learning of a hierarchy of diverse representations. Combined with intrinsically motivated goal exploration algorithms, we show that this system forms a discovery assistant that can efficiently adapt its diversity search towards preferences of a user using only a very small amount of user feedback.
Life's most valuable asset is health. Continuously understanding the state of our health and modeling how it evolves is essential if we wish to improve it. Given the opportunity that people live with more data about their life today than any other time in history, the challenge rests in interweaving this data with the growing body of knowledge to compute and model the health state of an individual continually. This dissertation presents an approach to build a personal model and dynamically estimate the health state of an individual by fusing multi-modal data and domain knowledge. The system is stitched together from four essential abstraction elements: 1. the events in our life, 2. the layers of our biological systems (from molecular to an organism), 3. the functional utilities that arise from biological underpinnings, and 4. how we interact with these utilities in the reality of daily life. Connecting these four elements via graph network blocks forms the backbone by which we instantiate a digital twin of an individual. Edges and nodes in this graph structure are then regularly updated with learning techniques as data is continuously digested. Experiments demonstrate the use of dense and heterogeneous real-world data from a variety of personal and environmental sensors to monitor individual cardiovascular health state. State estimation and individual modeling is the fundamental basis to depart from disease-oriented approaches to a total health continuum paradigm. Precision in predicting health requires understanding state trajectory. By encasing this estimation within a navigational approach, a systematic guidance framework can plan actions to transition a current state towards a desired one. This work concludes by presenting this framework of combining the health state and personal graph model to perpetually plan and assist us in living life towards our goals.
The notions of distance and similarity play a key role in many machine learning approaches, and artificial intelligence (AI) in general, since they can serve as an organizing principle by which individuals classify objects, form concepts and make generalizations. While distance functions for propositional representations have been thoroughly studied, work on distance functions for structured representations, such as graphs, frames or logical clauses, has been carried out in different communities and is much less understood. Specifically, a significant amount of work that requires the use of a distance or similarity function for structured representations of data usually employs ad-hoc functions for specific applications. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to provide an overview of this work to identify connections between the work carried out in different areas and point out directions for future work.
These mechanisms emerge as a response to patterns in the environment or enable us to refine our ability to spot them. Pattern recognition skills sit at the helm of our basic cognitive architecture. A common problem during hunting is to estimate how many predators there are – based on cues like animal sounds, footprints, etc. Say a pack of 4 hunters is trying to isolate a prey for food. The hunters can only survive if they have the physical capability to defend themselves and successfully kill or escape. If they do not have the ability, they will die.
This dissertation explores the integration of learning and analogy-making through the development of a computer program, called Analogator, that learns to make analogies by example. By "seeing" many different analogy problems, along with possible solutions, Analogator gradually develops an ability to make new analogies. That is, it learns to make analogies by analogy. This approach stands in contrast to most existing research on analogy-making, in which typically the a priori existence of analogical mechanisms within a model is assumed. The present research extends standard connectionist methodologies by developing a specialized associative training procedure for a recurrent network architecture. The network is trained to divide input scenes (or situations) into appropriate figure and ground components. Seeing one scene in terms of a particular figure and ground provides the context for seeing another in an analogous fashion. After training, the model is able to make new analogies between novel situations. Analogator has much in common with lower-level perceptual models of categorization and recognition; it thus serves as a unifying framework encompassing both high-level analogical learning and low-level perception. This approach is compared and contrasted with other computational models of analogy-making. The model's training and generalization performance is examined, and limitations are discussed.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is simulated human intelligence accomplished by computers, robots, or other machines. Sects of AI include language processing, visual recognition, decision-making, speech recognition, conversation, translation, pattern matching and categorization, machine learning, and task accomplishment. Though there are concerns about AI, it is probably the hottest trend in computer science at the moment, with most of the major technology companies, and thousands of startups, offering platforms for AI development. Developers looking to add intelligence to applications can check out the ProgrammableWeb Artificial Intelligence category for the best choices of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to tap into and create smarter apps. In this article, we highlight fourteen of the most popular AI APIs according to page visits on ProgrammableWeb.
The majority of ML research concerns slow, statistical learning of i.i.d. samples from large, labelled datasets. Animals do not learn this way. An enviable characteristic of animal learning is 'episodic' learning - the ability to rapidly memorize a specific experience as a composition of existing concepts, without provided labels. The new knowledge can then be used to distinguish between similar experiences, to generalize between classes, and to selectively consolidate to long-term memory. The Hippocampus is known to be vital to these abilities. AHA is a biologically-plausible computational model of the Hippocampus. Unlike most machine learning models, AHA is trained without any external labels and uses only local and immediate credit assignment. We demonstrate AHA in a superset of the Omniglot classification benchmark. The extended benchmark covers a wider range of known Hippocampal functions by testing pattern separation, completion, and reconstruction of original input. These functions are all performed within a single configuration of the computational model. Despite these constraints, results are comparable to state-of-the-art deep convolutional ANNs. In addition to the demonstrated high degree of functional overlap with the Hippocampal region, AHA is remarkably aligned to current macro-scale biological models and uses biologically plausible micro-scale learning rules.
This paper introduces the Contextual Evaluation Model (CEM), a novel method for knowledge representation and manipulation. The CEM differs from existing models in that it integrates facts, patterns and sequences into a single contextual framework. V5, an implementation of the model is presented and demonstrated with multiple annotated examples. The paper includes simulations demonstrating how the model reacts to pleasure/pain stimuli. The 'thought' is defined within the model and examples are given converting thoughts to language, converting language to thoughts and how 'meaning' arises from thoughts. A pattern learning algorithm is described. The algorithm is applied to multiple problems ranging from recognizing a voice to the autonomous learning of a simplified natural language.