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Scientists use reinforcement learning to train quantum algorithm

#artificialintelligence

Recent advancements in quantum computing have driven the scientific community's quest to solve a certain class of complex problems for which quantum computers would be better suited than traditional supercomputers. To improve the efficiency with which quantum computers can solve these problems, scientists are investigating the use of artificial intelligence approaches. In a new study, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have developed a new algorithm based on reinforcement learning to find the optimal parameters for the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA), which allows a quantum computer to solve certain combinatorial problems such as those that arise in materials design, chemistry and wireless communications. "Combinatorial optimization problems are those for which the solution space gets exponentially larger as you expand the number of decision variables," said Argonne computer scientist Prasanna Balaprakash. "In one traditional example, you can find the shortest route for a salesman who needs to visit a few cities once by enumerating all possible routes, but given a couple thousand cities, the number of possible routes far exceeds the number of stars in the universe; even the fastest supercomputers cannot find the shortest route in a reasonable time."


Artificial Intelligence for Social Good: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Its impact is drastic and real: Youtube's AIdriven recommendation system would present sports videos for days if one happens to watch a live baseball game on the platform [1]; email writing becomes much faster with machine learning (ML) based auto-completion [2]; many businesses have adopted natural language processing based chatbots as part of their customer services [3]. AI has also greatly advanced human capabilities in complex decision-making processes ranging from determining how to allocate security resources to protect airports [4] to games such as poker [5] and Go [6]. All such tangible and stunning progress suggests that an "AI summer" is happening. As some put it, "AI is the new electricity" [7]. Meanwhile, in the past decade, an emerging theme in the AI research community is the so-called "AI for social good" (AI4SG): researchers aim at developing AI methods and tools to address problems at the societal level and improve the wellbeing of the society.


Decision Automation for Electric Power Network Recovery

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Critical infrastructure systems such as electric power networks, water networks, and transportation systems play a major role in the welfare of any community. In the aftermath of disasters, their recovery is of paramount importance; orderly and efficient recovery involves the assignment of limited resources (a combination of human repair workers and machines) to repair damaged infrastructure components. The decision maker must also deal with uncertainty in the outcome of the resource-allocation actions during recovery. The manual assignment of resources seldom is optimal despite the expertise of the decision maker because of the large number of choices and uncertainties in consequences of sequential decisions. This combinatorial assignment problem under uncertainty is known to be \mbox{NP-hard}. We propose a novel decision technique that addresses the massive number of decision choices for large-scale real-world problems; in addition, our method also features an experiential learning component that adaptively determines the utilization of the computational resources based on the performance of a small number of choices. Our framework is closed-loop, and naturally incorporates all the attractive features of such a decision-making system. In contrast to myopic approaches, which do not account for the future effects of the current choices, our methodology has an anticipatory learning component that effectively incorporates \emph{lookahead} into the solutions. To this end, we leverage the theory of regression analysis, Markov decision processes (MDPs), multi-armed bandits, and stochastic models of community damage from natural disasters to develop a method for near-optimal recovery of communities. Our method contributes to the general problem of MDPs with massive action spaces with application to recovery of communities affected by hazards.


Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, and we, as machine learning experts, may wonder how we can help. Here we describe how machine learning can be a powerful tool in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping society adapt to a changing climate. From smart grids to disaster management, we identify high impact problems where existing gaps can be filled by machine learning, in collaboration with other fields. Our recommendations encompass exciting research questions as well as promising business opportunities. We call on the machine learning community to join the global effort against climate change.


Machine Learning and System Identification for Estimation in Physical Systems

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this thesis, we draw inspiration from both classical system identification and modern machine learning in order to solve estimation problems for real-world, physical systems. The main approach to estimation and learning adopted is optimization based. Concepts such as regularization will be utilized for encoding of prior knowledge and basis-function expansions will be used to add nonlinear modeling power while keeping data requirements practical. The thesis covers a wide range of applications, many inspired by applications within robotics, but also extending outside this already wide field. Usage of the proposed methods and algorithms are in many cases illustrated in the real-world applications that motivated the research. Topics covered include dynamics modeling and estimation, model-based reinforcement learning, spectral estimation, friction modeling and state estimation and calibration in robotic machining. In the work on modeling and identification of dynamics, we develop regularization strategies that allow us to incorporate prior domain knowledge into flexible, overparameterized models. We make use of classical control theory to gain insight into training and regularization while using flexible tools from modern deep learning. A particular focus of the work is to allow use of modern methods in scenarios where gathering data is associated with a high cost. In the robotics-inspired parts of the thesis, we develop methods that are practically motivated and ensure that they are implementable also outside the research setting. We demonstrate this by performing experiments in realistic settings and providing open-source implementations of all proposed methods and algorithms.


Artificial Intelligence : from Research to Application ; the Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium (UR-AI 2019)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance universities and their partners presented their competences in the field of artificial intelligence and their cross-border cooperations with the industry at the tri-national conference 'Artificial Intelligence : from Research to Application' on March 13th, 2019 in Offenburg. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, and Offenburg, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


Optimal and Low-Complexity Dynamic Spectrum Access for RF-Powered Ambient Backscatter System with Online Reinforcement Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Ambient backscatter has been introduced with a wide range of applications for low power wireless communications. In this article, we propose an optimal and low-complexity dynamic spectrum access framework for RFpowered ambient backscatter system. Under the dynamics of the ambient signals, we first adopt the Markov decision process (MDP) framework to obtain the optimal policy for the secondary transmitter, aiming to maximize the system throughput. However, the MDP-based optimization requires complete knowledge of environment parameters, e.g., the probability of a channel to be idle and the probability of a successful packet transmission, that may not be practical to obtain. To cope with such incomplete knowledge of the environment, we develop a low-complexity online reinforcement learning algorithm that allows the secondary transmitter to "learn" from its decisions and then attain the optimal policy. Simulation results show that the proposed learning algorithm not only efficiently deals with the dynamics of the environment, but also improves the average throughput up to 50% and reduces the blocking probability and delay up to 80% compared with conventional methods. Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) has been considered as a promising solution to improve the utilization of radio spectrum [2]. As DSA standard frameworks, the Federal Communications Commission and the European Telecommunications Standardization Institute have recently proposed Spectrum Access Systems (SAS) and Licensed Shared Access (LSA) respectively [3]. In both SAS and LSA, spectrum users are prioritized at different levels/tiers (e.g., there are three types of users with a decreasing order of priority: Incumbent Users (IUs), Priority Access Licensees (PALs), and General Authorized Access (GAAs)). Without loss of generality, in this work, we refer users with higher priority as IUs and users with lower priority as secondary users (SUs). DSA harvests under-utilized spectrum chunks by allowing an SU to dynamically access (temporarily) idle spectrum bands/whitespaces to transmit data.