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Reinforcement Learning-Empowered Mobile Edge Computing for 6G Edge Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Mobile edge computing (MEC) is considered a novel paradigm for computation-intensive and delay-sensitive tasks in fifth generation (5G) networks and beyond. However, its uncertainty, referred to as dynamic and randomness, from the mobile device, wireless channel, and edge network sides, results in high-dimensional, nonconvex, nonlinear, and NP-hard optimization problems. Thanks to the evolved reinforcement learning (RL), upon iteratively interacting with the dynamic and random environment, its trained agent can intelligently obtain the optimal policy in MEC. Furthermore, its evolved versions, such as deep RL (DRL), can achieve higher convergence speed efficiency and learning accuracy based on the parametric approximation for the large-scale state-action space. This paper provides a comprehensive research review on RL-enabled MEC and offers insight for development in this area. More importantly, associated with free mobility, dynamic channels, and distributed services, the MEC challenges that can be solved by different kinds of RL algorithms are identified, followed by how they can be solved by RL solutions in diverse mobile applications. Finally, the open challenges are discussed to provide helpful guidance for future research in RL training and learning MEC.


Computing for Ocean Environments: Bio-Inspired Underwater Devices & Swarming Algorithms for Robotic Vehicles

#artificialintelligence

Assistant Professor Wim van Rees and his team have developed simulations of self-propelled undulatory swimmers to better understand how fish-like deformable fins could improve propulsion in underwater devices, seen here in a top-down view. MIT ocean and mechanical engineers are using advances in scientific computing to address the ocean's many challenges, and seize its opportunities. There are few environments as unforgiving as the ocean. Its unpredictable weather patterns and limitations in terms of communications have left large swaths of the ocean unexplored and shrouded in mystery. "The ocean is a fascinating environment with a number of current challenges like microplastics, algae blooms, coral bleaching, and rising temperatures," says Wim van Rees, the ABS Career Development Professor at MIT. "At the same time, the ocean holds countless opportunities -- from aquaculture to energy harvesting and exploring the many ocean creatures we haven't discovered yet."


A Monotone Approximate Dynamic Programming Approach for the Stochastic Scheduling, Allocation, and Inventory Replenishment Problem: Applications to Drone and Electric Vehicle Battery Swap Stations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is a growing interest in using electric vehicles (EVs) and drones for many applications. However, battery-oriented issues, including range anxiety and battery degradation, impede adoption. Battery swap stations are one alternative to reduce these concerns that allow the swap of depleted for full batteries in minutes. We consider the problem of deriving actions at a battery swap station when explicitly considering the uncertain arrival of swap demand, battery degradation, and replacement. We model the operations at a battery swap station using a finite horizon Markov Decision Process model for the stochastic scheduling, allocation, and inventory replenishment problem (SAIRP), which determines when and how many batteries are charged, discharged, and replaced over time. We present theoretical proofs for the monotonicity of the value function and monotone structure of an optimal policy for special SAIRP cases. Due to the curses of dimensionality, we develop a new monotone approximate dynamic programming (ADP) method, which intelligently initializes a value function approximation using regression. In computational tests, we demonstrate the superior performance of the new regression-based monotone ADP method as compared to exact methods and other monotone ADP methods. Further, with the tests, we deduce policy insights for drone swap stations.


Swarm Intelligence for Next-Generation Wireless Networks: Recent Advances and Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Due to the proliferation of smart devices and emerging applications, many next-generation technologies have been paid for the development of wireless networks. Even though commercial 5G has just been widely deployed in some countries, there have been initial efforts from academia and industrial communities for 6G systems. In such a network, a very large number of devices and applications are emerged, along with heterogeneity of technologies, architectures, mobile data, etc., and optimizing such a network is of utmost importance. Besides convex optimization and game theory, swarm intelligence (SI) has recently appeared as a promising optimization tool for wireless networks. As a new subdivision of artificial intelligence, SI is inspired by the collective behaviors of societies of biological species. In SI, simple agents with limited capabilities would achieve intelligent strategies for high-dimensional and challenging problems, so it has recently found many applications in next-generation wireless networks (NGN). However, researchers may not be completely aware of the full potential of SI techniques. In this work, our primary focus will be the integration of these two domains: NGN and SI. Firstly, we provide an overview of SI techniques from fundamental concepts to well-known optimizers. Secondly, we review the applications of SI to settle emerging issues in NGN, including spectrum management and resource allocation, wireless caching and edge computing, network security, and several other miscellaneous issues. Finally, we highlight open challenges and issues in the literature, and introduce some interesting directions for future research.


Autonomy and Unmanned Vehicles Augmented Reactive Mission-Motion Planning Architecture for Autonomous Vehicles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Advances in hardware technology have facilitated more integration of sophisticated software toward augmenting the development of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs) and mitigating constraints for onboard intelligence. As a result, UVs can operate in complex missions where continuous trans-formation in environmental condition calls for a higher level of situational responsiveness and autonomous decision making. This book is a research monograph that aims to provide a comprehensive survey of UVs autonomy and its related properties in internal and external situation awareness to-ward robust mission planning in severe conditions. An advance level of intelligence is essential to minimize the reliance on the human supervisor, which is a main concept of autonomy. A self-controlled system needs a robust mission management strategy to push the boundaries towards autonomous structures, and the UV should be aware of its internal state and capabilities to assess whether current mission goal is achievable or find an alternative solution. In this book, the AUVs will become the major case study thread but other cases/types of vehicle will also be considered. In-deed the research monograph, the review chapters and the new approaches we have developed would be appropriate for use as a reference in upper years or postgraduate degrees for its coverage of literature and algorithms relating to Robot/Vehicle planning, tasking, routing, and trust.


A Gradient-Aware Search Algorithm for Constrained Markov Decision Processes

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The canonical solution methodology for finite constrained Markov decision processes (CMDPs), where the objective is to maximize the expected infinite-horizon discounted rewards subject to the expected infinite-horizon discounted costs constraints, is based on convex linear programming. In this brief, we first prove that the optimization objective in the dual linear program of a finite CMDP is a piece-wise linear convex function (PWLC) with respect to the Lagrange penalty multipliers. Next, we propose a novel two-level Gradient-Aware Search (GAS) algorithm which exploits the PWLC structure to find the optimal state-value function and Lagrange penalty multipliers of a finite CMDP. The proposed algorithm is applied in two stochastic control problems with constraints: robot navigation in a grid world and solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based wireless network management. We empirically compare the convergence performance of the proposed GAS algorithm with binary search (BS), Lagrangian primal-dual optimization (PDO), and Linear Programming (LP). Compared with benchmark algorithms, it is shown that the proposed GAS algorithm converges to the optimal solution faster, does not require hyper-parameter tuning, and is not sensitive to initialization of the Lagrange penalty multiplier.


Learning Model Predictive Control for Competitive Autonomous Racing

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The goal of this thesis is to design a learning model predictive controller (LMPC) that allows multiple agents to race competitively on a predefined race track in real-time. This thesis addresses two major shortcomings in the already existing single-agent formulation. Previously, the agent determines a locally optimal trajectory but does not explore the state space, which may be necessary for overtaking maneuvers. Additionally, obstacle avoidance for LMPC has been achieved in the past by using a non-convex terminal set, which increases the complexity for determining a solution to the optimization problem. The proposed algorithm for multi-agent racing explores the state space by executing the LMPC for multiple different initializations, which yields a richer terminal safe set. Furthermore, a new method for selecting states in the terminal set is developed, which keeps the convexity for the terminal safe set and allows for taking suboptimal states.


Federated Learning in the Sky: Joint Power Allocation and Scheduling with UAV Swarms

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarms must exploit machine learning (ML) in order to execute various tasks ranging from coordinated trajectory planning to cooperative target recognition. However, due to the lack of continuous connections between the UAV swarm and ground base stations (BSs), using centralized ML will be challenging, particularly when dealing with a large volume of data. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed to implement distributed federated learning (FL) algorithms within a UAV swarm that consists of a leading UAV and several following UAVs. Each following UAV trains a local FL model based on its collected data and then sends this trained local model to the leading UAV who will aggregate the received models, generate a global FL model, and transmit it to followers over the intra-swarm network. To identify how wireless factors, like fading, transmission delay, and UAV antenna angle deviations resulting from wind and mechanical vibrations, impact the performance of FL, a rigorous convergence analysis for FL is performed. Then, a joint power allocation and scheduling design is proposed to optimize the convergence rate of FL while taking into account the energy consumption during convergence and the delay requirement imposed by the swarm's control system. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the FL convergence analysis and show that the joint design strategy can reduce the number of communication rounds needed for convergence by as much as 35% compared with the baseline design.


Computational Sustainability

Communications of the ACM

These are exciting times for computational sciences with the digital revolution permeating a variety of areas and radically transforming business, science, and our daily lives. The Internet and the World Wide Web, GPS, satellite communications, remote sensing, and smartphones are dramatically accelerating the pace of discovery, engendering globally connected networks of people and devices. The rise of practically relevant artificial intelligence (AI) is also playing an increasing part in this revolution, fostering e-commerce, social networks, personalized medicine, IBM Watson and AlphaGo, self-driving cars, and other groundbreaking transformations. Unfortunately, humanity is also facing tremendous challenges. Nearly a billion people still live below the international poverty line and human activities and climate change are threatening our planet and the livelihood of current and future generations. Moreover, the impact of computing and information technology has been uneven, mainly benefiting profitable sectors, with fewer societal and environmental benefits, further exacerbating inequalities and the destruction of our planet. Our vision is that computer scientists can and should play a key role in helping address societal and environmental challenges in pursuit of a sustainable future, while also advancing computer science as a discipline. For over a decade, we have been deeply engaged in computational research to address societal and environmental challenges, while nurturing the new field of Computational Sustainability.


Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, and we, as machine learning experts, may wonder how we can help. Here we describe how machine learning can be a powerful tool in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping society adapt to a changing climate. From smart grids to disaster management, we identify high impact problems where existing gaps can be filled by machine learning, in collaboration with other fields. Our recommendations encompass exciting research questions as well as promising business opportunities. We call on the machine learning community to join the global effort against climate change.