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State of AI Ethics Report (Volume 6, February 2022)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This report from the Montreal AI Ethics Institute (MAIEI) covers the most salient progress in research and reporting over the second half of 2021 in the field of AI ethics. Particular emphasis is placed on an "Analysis of the AI Ecosystem", "Privacy", "Bias", "Social Media and Problematic Information", "AI Design and Governance", "Laws and Regulations", "Trends", and other areas covered in the "Outside the Boxes" section. The two AI spotlights feature application pieces on "Constructing and Deconstructing Gender with AI-Generated Art" as well as "Will an Artificial Intellichef be Cooking Your Next Meal at a Michelin Star Restaurant?". Given MAIEI's mission to democratize AI, submissions from external collaborators have featured, such as pieces on the "Challenges of AI Development in Vietnam: Funding, Talent and Ethics" and using "Representation and Imagination for Preventing AI Harms". The report is a comprehensive overview of what the key issues in the field of AI ethics were in 2021, what trends are emergent, what gaps exist, and a peek into what to expect from the field of AI ethics in 2022. It is a resource for researchers and practitioners alike in the field to set their research and development agendas to make contributions to the field of AI ethics.


Forecasting: theory and practice

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.


Following e-cigarette conversations on Twitter using artificial intelligence

#artificialintelligence

The advertising of nicotine products is highly restricted, but social media allows a way for these products to be marketed to young people. What's more, e-cigarette flavorings make them particularly appealing to teenagers and young adults. A team of researchers have developed machine learning methods to track the conversations on social media about flavored products by one of the most popular e-cigarette brands, JUUL. "An increasing amount of discussions on e-cigarettes is taking place online, in particular in popular social media such as Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook. As the content related to e-cigarettes is often targeted at youth--who are also very active on many social media platforms--it is important to explore these conversations' says Dr. Aqdas Malik, postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Computer Science at Aalto University.


JUUL patents AI-powered device to curb addiction by releasing smaller amounts of nicotine

Daily Mail - Science & tech

JUUL has been called'highly addictive', but the firm may be developing a new product that helps users kick the habit once and for all. The San Francisco company filed a patent that describes an artificial intelligence powered product that delivers fewer nicotine amounts to the user by learning their smoking habits over time. The document highlights a device that alternates between nicotine and a non-nicotine product in order to gradually reduce the intake of the drug. The device may also be connected to a smartphone that could log how much nicotine is being consumed, allowing the device to determine how it should regulate the drug, as first reported on by The Logic. JUUL started off as a way of providing the world's one billion smokers with an alternative to combustible tobacco products.


Cannabis storage device with facial recognition is awarded and then banned by CES 2020

Daily Mail - Science & tech

CES 2020 has had an embarrassing change of heart for the second year in a row after honouring a cannabis-storing keepsafe product with an innovation award and then banning it from the tradeshow floor. The Consumer Technology Association (CTA), which hosts the annual tradeshow in Las Vegas, awarded Canadian company Keep Labs with an innovation award in the run-up to the tech showcase event, which runs this week. Keep Labs, which uses facial recognition for the secure storage of cannabis in people's homes, was awarded for its'discreet' Smart Storage cannabis box. However, as reported by Tech Crunch, CTA told the company it could only exhibit if the company's signage, marketing materials and product was free from cannabis and associated paraphernalia. This was slightly difficult to accommodate, as the product is dedicated solely to cannabis storage, so Keep Labs therefore decided not to exhibit at CES 2020.


The Study of Machine Learning Models in Predicting the Intention of Adolescents to Smoke Cigarettes

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The use of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) is increasing among adolescents. This is problematic since consuming nicotine at an early age can cause harmful effects in developing teenager's brain and health. Additionally, the use of e-cigarette has a possibility of leading to the use of cigarettes, which is more severe. There were many researches about e-cigarette and cigarette that mostly focused on finding and analyzing causes of smoking using conventional statistics. However, there is a lack of research on developing prediction models, which is more applicable to anti-smoking campaign, about e-cigarette and cigarette. In this paper, we research the prediction models that can be used to predict an individual e-cigarette user's (including non-e-cigarette users) intention to smoke cigarettes, so that one can be early informed about the risk of going down the path of smoking cigarettes. To construct the prediction models, five machine learning (ML) algorithms are exploited and tested for their accuracy in predicting the intention to smoke cigarettes among never smokers using data from the 2018 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). In our investigation, the Gradient Boosting Classifier, one of the prediction models, shows the highest accuracy out of all the other models. Also, with the best prediction model, we made a public website that enables users to input information to predict their intentions of smoking cigarettes.


This Week in Business: No More E-Cigarettes at Walmart, and an Attack on the World's Oil Supply

NYT > Economy

Who knew the humble tailpipe could cause so much political rancor? Find out why, below, along with more business and tech news that you should know heading into the week. See, Monday doesn't need to be so bad. When President Trump decided a year ago to roll back Obama-era rules for car pollution, California shrugged, ignored him and kept its stricter regulations. Thirteen other states then followed its lead.


Kansas City doctor uses 'vaping robot' in research

#artificialintelligence

Dr. Matthias Salathe does the research in his lab at the University of Kansas Medical Center. Dr. Matthias Salathe does the research in his lab at the University of Kansas Medical Center. A Kansas City doctor is performing groundbreaking research on vaping, using a robot. Dr. Matthias Salathe spends a lot of time with e-cigarettes. "The notion was it's safe, and frankly we did not believe this," said Salathe.


Kansas City doctor uses 'vaping robot' in research

#artificialintelligence

Dr. Matthias Salathe does the research in his lab at the University of Kansas Medical Center. Dr. Matthias Salathe does the research in his lab at the University of Kansas Medical Center. A Kansas City doctor is performing groundbreaking research on vaping, using a robot. Dr. Matthias Salathe spends a lot of time with e-cigarettes. "The notion was it's safe, and frankly we did not believe this," said Salathe.