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Machine Learning Towards Intelligent Systems: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The emergence and continued reliance on the Internet and related technologies has resulted in the generation of large amounts of data that can be made available for analyses. However, humans do not possess the cognitive capabilities to understand such large amounts of data. Machine learning (ML) provides a mechanism for humans to process large amounts of data, gain insights about the behavior of the data, and make more informed decision based on the resulting analysis. ML has applications in various fields. This review focuses on some of the fields and applications such as education, healthcare, network security, banking and finance, and social media. Within these fields, there are multiple unique challenges that exist. However, ML can provide solutions to these challenges, as well as create further research opportunities. Accordingly, this work surveys some of the challenges facing the aforementioned fields and presents some of the previous literature works that tackled them. Moreover, it suggests several research opportunities that benefit from the use of ML to address these challenges.


Variational Beam Search for Online Learning with Distribution Shifts

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We consider the problem of online learning in the presence of sudden distribution shifts as frequently encountered in applications such as autonomous navigation. Distribution shifts require constant performance monitoring and re-training. They may also be hard to detect and can lead to a slow but steady degradation in model performance. To address this problem we propose a new Bayesian meta-algorithm that can both (i) make inferences about subtle distribution shifts based on minimal sequential observations and (ii) accordingly adapt a model in an online fashion. The approach uses beam search over multiple change point hypotheses to perform inference on a hierarchical sequential latent variable modeling framework. Our proposed approach is model-agnostic, applicable to both supervised and unsupervised learning, and yields significant improvements over state-of-the-art Bayesian online learning approaches.


At the Intersection of Deep Sequential Model Framework and State-space Model Framework: Study on Option Pricing

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Inference and forecast problems of the nonlinear dynamical system have arisen in a variety of contexts. Reservoir computing and deep sequential models, on the one hand, have demonstrated efficient, robust, and superior performance in modeling simple and chaotic dynamical systems. However, their innate deterministic feature has partially detracted their robustness to noisy system, and their inability to offer uncertainty measurement has also been an insufficiency of the framework. On the other hand, the traditional state-space model framework is robust to noise. It also carries measured uncertainty, forming a just-right complement to the reservoir computing and deep sequential model framework. We propose the unscented reservoir smoother, a model that unifies both deep sequential and state-space models to achieve both frameworks' superiorities. Evaluated in the option pricing setting on top of noisy datasets, URS strikes highly competitive forecasting accuracy, especially those of longer-term, and uncertainty measurement. Further extensions and implications on URS are also discussed to generalize a full integration of both frameworks.


MESA: Boost Ensemble Imbalanced Learning with MEta-SAmpler

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Imbalanced learning (IL), i.e., learning unbiased models from class-imbalanced data, is a challenging problem. Typical IL methods including resampling and reweighting were designed based on some heuristic assumptions. They often suffer from unstable performance, poor applicability, and high computational cost in complex tasks where their assumptions do not hold. In this paper, we introduce a novel ensemble IL framework named MESA. It adaptively resamples the training set in iterations to get multiple classifiers and forms a cascade ensemble model. MESA directly learns the sampling strategy from data to optimize the final metric beyond following random heuristics. Moreover, unlike prevailing meta-learning-based IL solutions, we decouple the model-training and meta-training in MESA by independently train the meta-sampler over task-agnostic meta-data. This makes MESA generally applicable to most of the existing learning models and the meta-sampler can be efficiently applied to new tasks. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world tasks demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness, and transferability of MESA. Our code is available at https://github.com/ZhiningLiu1998/mesa.


Artificial Intelligence: Research Impact on Key Industries; the Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium (UR-AI 2020)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents a collection of accepted papers of the cancelled tri-national 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Inteeligence Symposium' planned for 13th May 2020 in Karlsruhe. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, and Offenburg, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


Introduction to Machine Learning & Deep Learning in Python

#artificialintelligence

Online Courses Udemy Introduction to Machine Learning & Deep Learning in Python, Regression, Naive Bayes Classifier, Support Vector Machines, Random Forest Classifier and Deep Neural Networks Created by Holczer Balazs Students also bought Cluster Analysis and Unsupervised Machine Learning in Python Feature Engineering for Machine Learning Data Science 2020: Complete Data Science & Machine Learning Machine Learning A-Z: Become Kaggle Master Python for Time Series Data Analysis Ensemble Machine Learning in Python: Random Forest, AdaBoost Preview this course GET COUPON CODE Description This course is about the fundamental concepts of machine learning, focusing on regression, SVM, decision trees and neural networks. These topics are getting very hot nowadays because these learning algorithms can be used in several fields from software engineering to investment banking. Learning algorithms can recognize patterns which can help detect cancer for example or we may construct algorithms that can have a very good guess about stock prices movement in the market. In each section we will talk about the theoretical background for all of these algorithms then we are going to implement these problems together. We will use Python with SkLearn, Keras and TensorFlow.


Detecting Problem Statements in Peer Assessments

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Effective peer assessment requires students to be attentive to the deficiencies in the work they rate. Thus, their reviews should identify problems. But what ways are there to check that they do? We attempt to automate the process of deciding whether a review comment detects a problem. We use over 18,000 review comments that were labeled by the reviewees as either detecting or not detecting a problem with the work. We deploy several traditional machine-learning models, as well as neural-network models using GloVe and BERT embeddings. We find that the best performer is the Hierarchical Attention Network classifier, followed by the Bidirectional Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) Attention and Capsule model with scores of 93.1% and 90.5% respectively. The best non-neural network model was the support vector machine with a score of 89.71%. This is followed by the Stochastic Gradient Descent model and the Logistic Regression model with 89.70% and 88.98%.


A survey on Machine Learning-based Performance Improvement of Wireless Networks: PHY, MAC and Network layer

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive survey that reviews the latest research efforts focused on machine learning (ML) based performance improvement of wireless networks, while considering all layers of the protocol stack (PHY, MAC and network). First, the related work and paper contributions are discussed, followed by providing the necessary background on data-driven approaches and machine learning for non-machine learning experts to understand all discussed techniques. Then, a comprehensive review is presented on works employing ML-based approaches to optimize the wireless communication parameters settings to achieve improved network quality-of-service (QoS) and quality-of-experience (QoE). We first categorize these works into: radio analysis, MAC analysis and network prediction approaches, followed by subcategories within each. Finally, open challenges and broader perspectives are discussed.


Artificial Intelligence for Social Good: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Its impact is drastic and real: Youtube's AIdriven recommendation system would present sports videos for days if one happens to watch a live baseball game on the platform [1]; email writing becomes much faster with machine learning (ML) based auto-completion [2]; many businesses have adopted natural language processing based chatbots as part of their customer services [3]. AI has also greatly advanced human capabilities in complex decision-making processes ranging from determining how to allocate security resources to protect airports [4] to games such as poker [5] and Go [6]. All such tangible and stunning progress suggests that an "AI summer" is happening. As some put it, "AI is the new electricity" [7]. Meanwhile, in the past decade, an emerging theme in the AI research community is the so-called "AI for social good" (AI4SG): researchers aim at developing AI methods and tools to address problems at the societal level and improve the wellbeing of the society.


Deep Gamblers: Learning to Abstain with Portfolio Theory

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We deal with the \textit{selective classification} problem (supervised-learning problem with a rejection option), where we want to achieve the best performance at a certain level of coverage of the data. We transform the original $m$-class classification problem to $(m+1)$-class where the $(m+1)$-th class represents the model abstaining from making a prediction due to uncertainty. Inspired by portfolio theory, we propose a loss function for the selective classification problem based on the doubling rate of gambling. We show that minimizing this loss function has a natural interpretation as maximizing the return of a \textit{horse race}, where a player aims to balance between betting on an outcome (making a prediction) when confident and reserving one's winnings (abstaining) when not confident. This loss function allows us to train neural networks and characterize the uncertainty of prediction in an end-to-end fashion. In comparison with previous methods, our method requires almost no modification to the model inference algorithm or neural architecture. Experimentally, we show that our method can identify both uncertain and outlier data points, and achieves strong results on SVHN and CIFAR10 at various coverages of the data.