The editors at Solutions Review have compiled this list of the best machine learning certifications online to consider acquiring. Machine learning involves studying computer algorithms that improve automatically through experience. It is a sub-field of artificial intelligence where machine learning algorithms build models based on sample (or training) data. Once a predictive model is constructed it can be used to make predictions or decisions without being specifically commanded to do so. Machine learning is now a mainstream technology with a wide variety of uses and applications.
This material may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the American Society of Civil Engineers. This material may be found at https://doi.org/10.1061/AJRUA6.0001106 ABSTRACT In data-driven SHM, the signals recorded from systems in operation can be noisy and incomplete. Data corresponding to each of the operational, environmental, and damage states are rarely available a priori; furthermore, labelling to describe the measurements is often unavailable. In consequence, the algorithms used to implement SHM should be robust and adaptive, while accommodating for missing information in the training-data - such that new information can be included if it becomes available. By reviewing novel techniques for statistical learning (introduced in previous work), it is argued that probabilistic algorithms offer a natural solution to the modelling of SHM data in practice. In three case-studies, probabilistic methods are adapted for applications to SHM signals -- including semi-supervised learning, active learning, and multi-task learning. Various machine learning tools have been applied in the literature, for example (Vanik et al. 2000; Sohn et al. 2003; Chatzi and Smyth 2009), and used to infer the health or performance state of the monitored system, either directly or indirectly. Generally, algorithms for regression, classification, density estimation, or clustering learn patterns in the measured signals (available for training), and the associated patterns can be used to infer the state of the system in operation, given future measurements (Worden and Manson 2006). Unsurprisingly, there are numerous ways to apply machine learning to SHM. Notably (and categorised generally), advances have focussed on various probabilistic (e.g. Each approach has its advantages; however, considering certain challenges associated with SHM data (outlined in the next section) the current work focusses on probabilistic (i.e. Additionally, probabilistic methods can lead to predictions under uncertainty (Papoulis 1965) - a significant advantage in risk-based applications.
Bayesian optimization (BO) is among the most effective and widely-used blackbox optimization methods. BO proposes solutions according to an explore-exploit trade-off criterion encoded in an acquisition function, many of which are computed from the posterior predictive of a probabilistic surrogate model. Prevalent among these is the expected improvement (EI) function. The need to ensure analytical tractability of the predictive often poses limitations that can hinder the efficiency and applicability of BO. In this paper, we cast the computation of EI as a binary classification problem, building on the link between class-probability estimation and density-ratio estimation, and the lesser-known link between density-ratios and EI. By circumventing the tractability constraints, this reformulation provides numerous advantages, not least in terms of expressiveness, versatility, and scalability.
Abstract--Real-world applications have been dealing with large amounts of data that arrive over time and generally present changes in their underlying joint probability distribution, i.e., concept drift. Concept drift can be subdivided into two types: virtual drift, which affects the unconditional probability distribution p(x), and real drift, which affects the conditional probability distribution p(y x) . Existing works focuses on real drift. However, strategies to cope with real drift may not be the best suited for dealing with virtual drift, since the real class boundaries remain unchanged. We provide the first in depth analysis of the differences between the impact of virtual and real drifts on classifiers' suitability. We propose an approach to handle both drifts called On-line Gaussian Mixture Model With Noise Filter For Handling Virtual and Real Concept Drifts (OGMMF-VRD). Experiments with 7 synthetic and 3 real-world datasets show that OGMMF-VRD obtained the best results in terms of average accuracy, G-mean and runtime compared to existing approaches. Moreover, its accuracy over time suffered less performance degradation in the presence of drifts. In recent years, real-world applications like credit card learned decision boundaries, which need to be adjusted for fraud detection, flight delay and weather forecasting have the classifier to remain suitable. Such sequences of data are known as data stream learning approaches treat virtual drifts using data streams [2, 3]. They are challenging for data modeling the same strategies as for real drifts .
This graduate textbook on machine learning tells a story of how patterns in data support predictions and consequential actions. Starting with the foundations of decision making, we cover representation, optimization, and generalization as the constituents of supervised learning. A chapter on datasets as benchmarks examines their histories and scientific bases. Self-contained introductions to causality, the practice of causal inference, sequential decision making, and reinforcement learning equip the reader with concepts and tools to reason about actions and their consequences. Throughout, the text discusses historical context and societal impact. We invite readers from all backgrounds; some experience with probability, calculus, and linear algebra suffices.
In this paper, we develop a new classification method for manifold-valued data in the framework of probabilistic learning vector quantization. In many classification scenarios, the data can be naturally represented by symmetric positive definite matrices, which are inherently points that live on a curved Riemannian manifold. Due to the non-Euclidean geometry of Riemannian manifolds, traditional Euclidean machine learning algorithms yield poor results on such data. In this paper, we generalize the probabilistic learning vector quantization algorithm for data points living on the manifold of symmetric positive definite matrices equipped with Riemannian natural metric (affine-invariant metric). By exploiting the induced Riemannian distance, we derive the probabilistic learning Riemannian space quantization algorithm, obtaining the learning rule through Riemannian gradient descent. Empirical investigations on synthetic data, image data , and motor imagery EEG data demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.
Technical growths have empowered, numerous revolutions in the educational system by acquainting with technology into the classroom and by elevating the learning experience. Nowadays Web-based learning is getting much popularity. This paper describes the web-based learning and their effectiveness towards students. One of the prime factors in education or learning system is feedback; it is beneficial to learning if it must be used effectively. In this paper, we worked on how machine learning techniques like Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes (NB), Decision Tree (DT) can be applied over Web-based learning, emphasis given on sentiment present in the feedback students. We also work on two types of Feature Extraction Technique (FETs) namely Count Vector (CVr) or Bag of Words) (BoW) and Term Frequency and Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) Vector. In the research study, it is our goal for our proposed LR, SVM, NB, and DT models to classify the presence of Student Feedback Dataset (SFB) with improved accuracy with cleaned dataset and feature extraction techniques. The SFB is one of the significant concerns among the student sentimental analysis.
After challenging the validity of these assumptions in real-world applications, we propose ways to move forward when they are violated. First, we show that group fairness criteria purely based on statistical properties of observed data are fundamentally limited. Revisiting this limitation from a causal viewpoint we develop a more versatile conceptual framework, causal fairness criteria, and first algorithms to achieve them. We also provide tools to analyze how sensitive a believed-to-be causally fair algorithm is to misspecifications of the causal graph. Second, we overcome the assumption that sensitive data is readily available in practice. To this end we devise protocols based on secure multi-party computation to train, validate, and contest fair decision algorithms without requiring users to disclose their sensitive data or decision makers to disclose their models. Finally, we also accommodate the fact that outcome labels are often only observed when a certain decision has been made. We suggest a paradigm shift away from training predictive models towards directly learning decisions to relax the traditional assumption that labels can always be recorded. The main contribution of this thesis is the development of theoretically substantiated and practically feasible methods to move research on fair machine learning closer to real-world applications.
Theoretical results show that Bayesian methods can achieve lower bounds on regret for online logistic regression. In practice, however, such techniques may not be feasible especially for very large feature sets. Various approximations that, for huge sparse feature sets, diminish the theoretical advantages, must be used. Often, they apply stochastic gradient methods with hyper-parameters that must be tuned on some surrogate loss, defeating theoretical advantages of Bayesian methods. The surrogate loss, defined to approximate the mixture, requires techniques as Monte Carlo sampling, increasing computations per example. We propose low complexity analytical approximations for sparse online logistic and probit regressions. Unlike variational inference and other methods, our methods use analytical closed forms, substantially lowering computations. Unlike dense solutions, as Gaussian Mixtures, our methods allow for sparse problems with huge feature sets without increasing complexity. With the analytical closed forms, there is also no need for applying stochastic gradient methods on surrogate losses, and for tuning and balancing learning and regularization hyper-parameters. Empirical results top the performance of the more computationally involved methods. Like such methods, our methods still reveal per feature and per example uncertainty measures.
Trip destination prediction is an area of increasing importance in many applications such as trip planning, autonomous driving and electric vehicles. Even though this problem could be naturally addressed in an online learning paradigm where data is arriving in a sequential fashion, the majority of research has rather considered the offline setting. In this paper, we present a unified framework for trip destination prediction in an online setting, which is suitable for both online training and online prediction. For this purpose, we develop two clustering algorithms and integrate them within two online prediction models for this problem. We investigate the different configurations of clustering algorithms and prediction models on a real-world dataset. By using traditional clustering metrics and accuracy, we demonstrate that both the clustering and the entire framework yield consistent results compared to the offline setting. Finally, we propose a novel regret metric for evaluating the entire online framework in comparison to its offline counterpart. This metric makes it possible to relate the source of erroneous predictions to either the clustering or the prediction model. Using this metric, we show that the proposed methods converge to a probability distribution resembling the true underlying distribution and enjoy a lower regret than all of the baselines.