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Abolish the #TechToPrisonPipeline

#artificialintelligence

The authors of the Harrisburg University study make explicit their desire to provide "a significant advantage for law enforcement agencies and other intelligence agencies to prevent crime" as a co-author and former NYPD police officer outlined in the original press release.[38] At a time when the legitimacy of the carceral state, and policing in particular, is being challenged on fundamental grounds in the United States, there is high demand in law enforcement for research of this nature, research which erases historical violence and manufactures fear through the so-called prediction of criminality. Publishers and funding agencies serve a crucial role in feeding this ravenous maw by providing platforms and incentives for such research. The circulation of this work by a major publisher like Springer would represent a significant step towards the legitimation and application of repeatedly debunked, socially harmful research in the real world. To reiterate our demands, the review committee must publicly rescind the offer for publication of this specific study, along with an explanation of the criteria used to evaluate it. Springer must issue a statement condemning the use of criminal justice statistics to predict criminality and acknowledging their role in incentivizing such harmful scholarship in the past. Finally, all publishers must refrain from publishing similar studies in the future.


Randomized Kernel Multi-view Discriminant Analysis

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In many artificial intelligence and computer vision systems, the same object can be observed at distinct viewpoints or by diverse sensors, which raises the challenges for recognizing objects from different, even heterogeneous views. Multi-view discriminant analysis (MvDA) is an effective multi-view subspace learning method, which finds a discriminant common subspace by jointly learning multiple view-specific linear projections for object recognition from multiple views, in a non-pairwise way. In this paper, we propose the kernel version of multi-view discriminant analysis, called kernel multi-view discriminant analysis (KMvDA). To overcome the well-known computational bottleneck of kernel methods, we also study the performance of using random Fourier features (RFF) to approximate Gaussian kernels in KMvDA, for large scale learning. Theoretical analysis on stability of this approximation is developed. We also conduct experiments on several popular multi-view datasets to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed strategy.


Health State Estimation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Life's most valuable asset is health. Continuously understanding the state of our health and modeling how it evolves is essential if we wish to improve it. Given the opportunity that people live with more data about their life today than any other time in history, the challenge rests in interweaving this data with the growing body of knowledge to compute and model the health state of an individual continually. This dissertation presents an approach to build a personal model and dynamically estimate the health state of an individual by fusing multi-modal data and domain knowledge. The system is stitched together from four essential abstraction elements: 1. the events in our life, 2. the layers of our biological systems (from molecular to an organism), 3. the functional utilities that arise from biological underpinnings, and 4. how we interact with these utilities in the reality of daily life. Connecting these four elements via graph network blocks forms the backbone by which we instantiate a digital twin of an individual. Edges and nodes in this graph structure are then regularly updated with learning techniques as data is continuously digested. Experiments demonstrate the use of dense and heterogeneous real-world data from a variety of personal and environmental sensors to monitor individual cardiovascular health state. State estimation and individual modeling is the fundamental basis to depart from disease-oriented approaches to a total health continuum paradigm. Precision in predicting health requires understanding state trajectory. By encasing this estimation within a navigational approach, a systematic guidance framework can plan actions to transition a current state towards a desired one. This work concludes by presenting this framework of combining the health state and personal graph model to perpetually plan and assist us in living life towards our goals.


Artificial Intelligence for Social Good: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Its impact is drastic and real: Youtube's AIdriven recommendation system would present sports videos for days if one happens to watch a live baseball game on the platform [1]; email writing becomes much faster with machine learning (ML) based auto-completion [2]; many businesses have adopted natural language processing based chatbots as part of their customer services [3]. AI has also greatly advanced human capabilities in complex decision-making processes ranging from determining how to allocate security resources to protect airports [4] to games such as poker [5] and Go [6]. All such tangible and stunning progress suggests that an "AI summer" is happening. As some put it, "AI is the new electricity" [7]. Meanwhile, in the past decade, an emerging theme in the AI research community is the so-called "AI for social good" (AI4SG): researchers aim at developing AI methods and tools to address problems at the societal level and improve the wellbeing of the society.


Using Bursty Announcements for Early Detection of BGP Routing Anomalies

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Despite the robust structure of the Internet, it is still susceptible to disruptive routing updates that prevent network traffic from reaching its destination. In this work, we propose a method for early detection of large-scale disruptions based on the analysis of bursty BGP announcements. We hypothesize that the occurrence of large-scale disruptions is preceded by bursty announcements. Our method is grounded in analysis of changes in the inter-arrival times of announcements. BGP announcements that are associated with disruptive updates tend to occur in groups of relatively high frequency, followed by periods of infrequent activity. To test our hypothesis, we quantify the burstiness of inter-arrival times around the date and times of three large-scale incidents: the Indosat hijacking event in April 2014, the Telecom Malaysia leak in June 2015, and the Bharti Airtel Ltd. hijack in November 2015. We show that we can detect these events several hours prior to when they were originally detected. We propose an algorithm that leverages the burstiness of disruptive updates to provide early detection of large-scale malicious incidents using local collector data. We describe limitations, open challenges, and how this method can be used for large-scale routing anomaly detection.


Big Data Meet Cyber-Physical Systems: A Panoramic Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The world is witnessing an unprecedented growth of cyber-physical systems (CPS), which are foreseen to revolutionize our world {via} creating new services and applications in a variety of sectors such as environmental monitoring, mobile-health systems, intelligent transportation systems and so on. The {information and communication technology }(ICT) sector is experiencing a significant growth in { data} traffic, driven by the widespread usage of smartphones, tablets and video streaming, along with the significant growth of sensors deployments that are anticipated in the near future. {It} is expected to outstandingly increase the growth rate of raw sensed data. In this paper, we present the CPS taxonomy {via} providing a broad overview of data collection, storage, access, processing and analysis. Compared with other survey papers, this is the first panoramic survey on big data for CPS, where our objective is to provide a panoramic summary of different CPS aspects. Furthermore, CPS {require} cybersecurity to protect {them} against malicious attacks and unauthorized intrusion, which {become} a challenge with the enormous amount of data that is continuously being generated in the network. {Thus, we also} provide an overview of the different security solutions proposed for CPS big data storage, access and analytics. We also discuss big data meeting green challenges in the contexts of CPS.


Visions of a generalized probability theory

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this Book we argue that the fruitful interaction of computer vision and belief calculus is capable of stimulating significant advances in both fields. From a methodological point of view, novel theoretical results concerning the geometric and algebraic properties of belief functions as mathematical objects are illustrated and discussed in Part II, with a focus on both a perspective 'geometric approach' to uncertainty and an algebraic solution to the issue of conflicting evidence. In Part III we show how these theoretical developments arise from important computer vision problems (such as articulated object tracking, data association and object pose estimation) to which, in turn, the evidential formalism is able to provide interesting new solutions. Finally, some initial steps towards a generalization of the notion of total probability to belief functions are taken, in the perspective of endowing the theory of evidence with a complete battery of estimation and inference tools to the benefit of all scientists and practitioners.


Artificial Intelligence Enabled Software Defined Networking: A Comprehensive Overview

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Software defined networking (SDN) represents a promising networking architecture that combines central management and network programmability. SDN separates the control plane from the data plane and moves the network management to a central point, called the controller, that can be programmed and used as the brain of the network. Recently, the research community has showed an increased tendency to benefit from the recent advancements in the artificial intelligence (AI) field to provide learning abilities and better decision making in SDN. In this study, we provide a detailed overview of the recent efforts to include AI in SDN. Our study showed that the research efforts focused on three main sub-fields of AI namely: machine learning, meta-heuristics and fuzzy inference systems. Accordingly, in this work we investigate their different application areas and potential use, as well as the improvements achieved by including AI-based techniques in the SDN paradigm.


Artificial Intelligence for the Public Sector: Opportunities and challenges of cross-sector collaboration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Public sector organisations are increasingly interested in using data science and artificial intelligence capabilities to deliver policy and generate efficiencies in high uncertainty environments. The long-term success of data science and AI in the public sector relies on effectively embedding it into delivery solutions for policy implementation. However, governments cannot do this integration of AI into public service delivery on their own. The UK Government Industrial Strategy is clear that delivering on the AI grand challenge requires collaboration between universities and public and private sectors. This cross-sectoral collaborative approach is the norm in applied AI centres of excellence around the world. Despite their popularity, cross-sector collaborations entail serious management challenges that hinder their success. In this article we discuss the opportunities and challenges from AI for public sector. Finally, we propose a series of strategies to successfully manage these cross-sectoral collaborations.


Marketing Analytics: Methods, Practice, Implementation, and Links to Other Fields

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Marketing analytics is a diverse field, with both academic researchers and practitioners coming from a range of backgrounds including marketing, operations research, statistics, and computer science. This paper provides an integrative review at the boundary of these three areas. The topics of visualization, segmentation, and class prediction are featured. Links between the disciplines are emphasized. For each of these topics, a historical overview is given, starting with initial work in the 1960s and carrying through to the present day. Recent innovations for modern large and complex "big data" sets are described. Practical implementation advice is given, along with a directory of open source R routines for implementing marketing analytics techniques.