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Ethics and AI: tackling biases hidden in big data

AIHub

This work involved development of a model of an autonomous agent that allows researchers to distinguish various types of control that intelligent software agents can exert on users. The framework of this model allows different types of interaction (i.e.


Intelligent Agent for Hurricane Emergency Identification and Text Information Extraction from Streaming Social Media Big Data

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents our research on leveraging social media Big Data and AI to support hurricane disaster emergency response. The current practice of hurricane emergency response for rescue highly relies on emergency call centres. The more recent Hurricane Harvey event reveals the limitations of the current systems. We use Hurricane Harvey and the associated Houston flooding as the motivating scenario to conduct research and develop a prototype as a proof-of-concept of using an intelligent agent as a complementary role to support emergency centres in hurricane emergency response. This intelligent agent is used to collect real-time streaming tweets during a natural disaster event, to identify tweets requesting rescue, to extract key information such as address and associated geocode, and to visualize the extracted information in an interactive map in decision supports. Our experiment shows promising outcomes and the potential application of the research in support of hurricane emergency response.


Defining definition: a Text mining Approach to Define Innovative Technological Fields

arXiv.org Machine Learning

One of the first task of an innovative project is delineating the scope of the project itself or of the product/service to be developed. A wrong scope definition can determine (in the worst case) project failure. A good scope definition become even more relevant in technological intensive innovation projects, nowadays characterized by a highly dynamic multidisciplinary, turbulent and uncertain environment. In these cases, the boundaries of the project are not easily detectable and it is difficult to decide what it is in-scope and out-of-scope. The present work proposes a tool for the scope delineation process, that automatically define an innovative technological field or a new technology. The tool is based on Text Mining algorithm that exploits Elsevier's Scopus abstracts in order to the extract relevant data to define a technological scope. The automatic definition tool is then applied on four case studies: Artificial Intelligence and Data Science. The results show how the tool can provide many crucial information in the definition process of a technological field. In particular for the target technological field (or technology), it provides the definition and other elements related to the target.


Incentivized Bandit Learning with Self-Reinforcing User Preferences

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we investigate a new multi-armed bandit (MAB) online learning model that considers real-world phenomena in many recommender systems: (i) the learning agent cannot pull the arms by itself and thus has to offer rewards to users to incentivize arm-pulling indirectly; and (ii) if users with specific arm preferences are well rewarded, they induce a "self-reinforcing" effect in the sense that they will attract more users of similar arm preferences. Besides addressing the tradeoff of exploration and exploitation, another key feature of this new MAB model is to balance reward and incentivizing payment. The goal of the agent is to maximize the total reward over a fixed time horizon $T$ with a low total payment. Our contributions in this paper are two-fold: (i) We propose a new MAB model with random arm selection that considers the relationship of users' self-reinforcing preferences and incentives; and (ii) We leverage the properties of a multi-color Polya urn with nonlinear feedback model to propose two MAB policies termed "At-Least-$n$ Explore-Then-Commit" and "UCB-List". We prove that both policies achieve $O(log T)$ expected regret with $O(log T)$ expected payment over a time horizon $T$. We conduct numerical simulations to demonstrate and verify the performances of these two policies and study their robustness under various settings.


AI with swarm intelligence: A novel technology for cooperative analysis of big data

#artificialintelligence

Science and medicine are becoming increasingly digital. Analyzing the resulting volumes of information -- known as "big data" -- is considered a key to better treatment options. "Medical research data are a treasure. They can play a decisive role in developing personalized therapies that are tailored to each individual more precisely than conventional treatments," said Joachim Schultze, Director of Systems Medicine at the DZNE and professor at the Life & Medical Sciences Institute (LIMES) at the University of Bonn. "It's critical for science to be able to use such data as comprehensively and from as many sources as possible."


Experian Showcases Innovation Using Artificial Intelligence

#artificialintelligence

WIRE)--Experian's best-in-class digital credit risk decisioning solutions have garnered industry-wide recognition, winning two recent awards focused on application excellence in artificial intelligence. Experian prides itself on using data and new technologies that solve real-world problems for businesses and consumers. "We are proud to be recognized by two prestigious institutions for our work with artificial intelligence," said Steven Wagner, Global Managing Director, Experian Decision Analytics. "Experian remains dedicated to using the latest in advanced analytics to help businesses build and protect trusted relationships with customers." Experian Decision Analytics was recognized as a winner of the Artificial Intelligence Excellence Award program by Business Intelligence Group for its credit and collections decisioning solution, PowerCurve, which features intelligent agent-customer assist that processes complex, regulated, and subjective interactions with customers, revolutionizing how they digitally interact, on their terms, with lenders.


Swarm Differential Privacy for Purpose Driven Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom Architecture

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Privacy protection has recently attracted the attention of both academics and industries. Society protects individual data privacy through complex legal frameworks. This has become a topic of interest with the increasing applications of data science and artificial intelligence that have created a higher demand to the ubiquitous application of the data. The privacy protection of the broad Data-InformationKnowledge-Wisdom (DIKW) landscape, the next generation of information organization, has not been in the limelight. Next, we will explore DIKW architecture through the applications of popular swarm intelligence and differential privacy. As differential privacy proved to be an effective data privacy approach, we will look at it from a DIKW domain perspective. Swarm Intelligence could effectively optimize and reduce the number of items in DIKW used in differential privacy, this way accelerating both the effectiveness and the efficiency of differential privacy for crossing multiple modals of conceptual DIKW. The proposed approach is proved through the application of personalized data that is based on the open-sourse IRIS dataset. This experiment demonstrates the efficiency of Swarm Intelligence in reducing computing complexity.


Game Plan: What AI can do for Football, and What Football can do for AI

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

The rapid progress in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning has opened unprecedented analytics possibilities in various team and individual sports, including baseball, basketball, and tennis. More recently, AI techniques have been applied to football, due to a huge increase in data collection by professional teams, increased computational power, and advances in machine learning, with the goal of better addressing new scientific challenges involved in the analysis of both individual players’ and coordinated teams’ behaviors. The research challenges associated with predictive and prescriptive football analytics require new developments and progress at the intersection of statistical learning, game theory, and computer vision. In this paper, we provide an overarching perspective highlighting how the combination of these fields, in particular, forms a unique microcosm for AI research, while offering mutual benefits for professional teams, spectators, and broadcasters in the years to come. We illustrate that this duality makes football analytics a game changer of tremendous value, in terms of not only changing the game of football itself, but also in terms of what this domain can mean for the field of AI. We review the state-of-the-art and exemplify the types of analysis enabled by combining the aforementioned fields, including illustrative examples of counterfactual analysis using predictive models, and the combination of game-theoretic analysis of penalty kicks with statistical learning of player attributes. We conclude by highlighting envisioned downstream impacts, including possibilities for extensions to other sports (real and virtual).


Pervasive AI for IoT Applications: Resource-efficient Distributed Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has witnessed a substantial breakthrough in a variety of Internet of Things (IoT) applications and services, spanning from recommendation systems to robotics control and military surveillance. This is driven by the easier access to sensory data and the enormous scale of pervasive/ubiquitous devices that generate zettabytes (ZB) of real-time data streams. Designing accurate models using such data streams, to predict future insights and revolutionize the decision-taking process, inaugurates pervasive systems as a worthy paradigm for a better quality-of-life. The confluence of pervasive computing and artificial intelligence, Pervasive AI, expanded the role of ubiquitous IoT systems from mainly data collection to executing distributed computations with a promising alternative to centralized learning, presenting various challenges. In this context, a wise cooperation and resource scheduling should be envisaged among IoT devices (e.g., smartphones, smart vehicles) and infrastructure (e.g. edge nodes, and base stations) to avoid communication and computation overheads and ensure maximum performance. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the recent techniques developed to overcome these resource challenges in pervasive AI systems. Specifically, we first present an overview of the pervasive computing, its architecture, and its intersection with artificial intelligence. We then review the background, applications and performance metrics of AI, particularly Deep Learning (DL) and online learning, running in a ubiquitous system. Next, we provide a deep literature review of communication-efficient techniques, from both algorithmic and system perspectives, of distributed inference, training and online learning tasks across the combination of IoT devices, edge devices and cloud servers. Finally, we discuss our future vision and research challenges.


Precarity: Modeling the Long Term Effects of Compounded Decisions on Individual Instability

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The study of the social impact of automated decision making has focused largely on issues of fairness at the point of decision, evaluating the fairness (with respect to a population) of a sequence or pipeline of decisions, or examining the dynamics of a game between the decision-maker and the decision subject. What is missing from this study is an examination of precarity: a term coined by Judith Butler to describe an unstable state of existence in which negative decisions can have ripple effects on one's well-being. Such ripple effects are not captured by changes in income or wealth alone or by one decision alone. To study precarity, we must reorient our frame of reference away from the decision-maker and towards the decision subject; away from aggregates of decisions over a population and towards aggregates of decisions (for an individual) over time. An individual who lives with higher precarity is more affected and less able to recover by the same negative decision than another with low precarity. Thus including only the direct impact of a single decision or a few decisions is insufficient to judge if that system was fair. However, precarity is not an attribute of an individual; it is a result of being subject to greater risks and fewer supports, in addition to starting off at a less secure position. Precarity is impacted by racism, sexism, ableism, heterosexism, and other systems of oppression, and an individual's intersectional identity may put one at greater risk in society, subject to a lower income for the same job, less able to build wealth even at the same income level, and less able to recover from harm.