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Reports of the Workshops Held at the 2021 AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence

Interactive AI Magazine

The Workshop Program of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence's Thirty-Fifth Conference on Artificial Intelligence was held virtually from February 8-9, 2021. There were twenty-six workshops in the program: Affective Content Analysis, AI for Behavior Change, AI for Urban Mobility, Artificial Intelligence Safety, Combating Online Hostile Posts in Regional Languages during Emergency Situations, Commonsense Knowledge Graphs, Content Authoring and Design, Deep Learning on Graphs: Methods and Applications, Designing AI for Telehealth, 9th Dialog System Technology Challenge, Explainable Agency in Artificial Intelligence, Graphs and More Complex Structures for Learning and Reasoning, 5th International Workshop on Health Intelligence, Hybrid Artificial Intelligence, Imagining Post-COVID Education with AI, Knowledge Discovery from Unstructured Data in Financial Services, Learning Network Architecture During Training, Meta-Learning and Co-Hosted Competition, ...


Optimal and Efficient Algorithms for General Mixable Losses against Switching Oracles

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We investigate the problem of online learning, which has gained significant attention in recent years due to its applicability in a wide range of fields from machine learning to game theory. Specifically, we study the online optimization of mixable loss functions in a dynamic environment. We introduce online mixture schemes that asymptotically achieves the performance of the best dynamic estimation sequence of the switching oracle with optimal regret redundancies. The best dynamic estimation sequence that we compete against is selected in hindsight with full observation of the loss functions and is allowed to select different optimal estimations in different time intervals (segments). We propose two mixtures in our work. Firstly, we propose a tractable polynomial time complexity algorithm that can achieve the optimal redundancy of the intractable brute force approach. Secondly, we propose an efficient logarithmic time complexity algorithm that can achieve the optimal redundancy up to a constant multiplicity gap. Our results are guaranteed to hold in a strong deterministic sense in an individual sequence manner.


Seven challenges for harmonizing explainability requirements

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Regulators have signalled an interest in adopting explainable AI(XAI) techniques to handle the diverse needs for model governance, operational servicing, and compliance in the financial services industry. In this short overview, we review the recent technical literature in XAI and argue that based on our current understanding of the field, the use of XAI techniques in practice necessitate a highly contextualized approach considering the specific needs of stakeholders for particular business applications.


The application of artificial intelligence in software engineering: a review challenging conventional wisdom

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The field of artificial intelligence (AI) is witnessing a recent upsurge in research, tools development, and deployment of applications. Multiple software companies are shifting their focus to developing intelligent systems; and many others are deploying AI paradigms to their existing processes. In parallel, the academic research community is injecting AI paradigms to provide solutions to traditional engineering problems. Similarly, AI has evidently been proved useful to software engineering (SE). When one observes the SE phases (requirements, design, development, testing, release, and maintenance), it becomes clear that multiple AI paradigms (such as neural networks, machine learning, knowledge-based systems, natural language processing) could be applied to improve the process and eliminate many of the major challenges that the SE field has been facing. This survey chapter is a review of the most commonplace methods of AI applied to SE. The review covers methods between years 1975-2017, for the requirements phase, 46 major AI-driven methods are found, 19 for design, 15 for development, 68 for testing, and 15 for release and maintenance. Furthermore, the purpose of this chapter is threefold; firstly, to answer the following questions: is there sufficient intelligence in the SE lifecycle? What does applying AI to SE entail? Secondly, to measure, formulize, and evaluate the overlap of SE phases and AI disciplines. Lastly, this chapter aims to provide serious questions to challenging the current conventional wisdom (i.e., status quo) of the state-of-the-art, craft a call for action, and to redefine the path forward.


Ethics and AI: tackling biases hidden in big data

AIHub

This work involved development of a model of an autonomous agent that allows researchers to distinguish various types of control that intelligent software agents can exert on users. The framework of this model allows different types of interaction (i.e.


Intelligent Agent for Hurricane Emergency Identification and Text Information Extraction from Streaming Social Media Big Data

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents our research on leveraging social media Big Data and AI to support hurricane disaster emergency response. The current practice of hurricane emergency response for rescue highly relies on emergency call centres. The more recent Hurricane Harvey event reveals the limitations of the current systems. We use Hurricane Harvey and the associated Houston flooding as the motivating scenario to conduct research and develop a prototype as a proof-of-concept of using an intelligent agent as a complementary role to support emergency centres in hurricane emergency response. This intelligent agent is used to collect real-time streaming tweets during a natural disaster event, to identify tweets requesting rescue, to extract key information such as address and associated geocode, and to visualize the extracted information in an interactive map in decision supports. Our experiment shows promising outcomes and the potential application of the research in support of hurricane emergency response.


Defining definition: a Text mining Approach to Define Innovative Technological Fields

arXiv.org Machine Learning

One of the first task of an innovative project is delineating the scope of the project itself or of the product/service to be developed. A wrong scope definition can determine (in the worst case) project failure. A good scope definition become even more relevant in technological intensive innovation projects, nowadays characterized by a highly dynamic multidisciplinary, turbulent and uncertain environment. In these cases, the boundaries of the project are not easily detectable and it is difficult to decide what it is in-scope and out-of-scope. The present work proposes a tool for the scope delineation process, that automatically define an innovative technological field or a new technology. The tool is based on Text Mining algorithm that exploits Elsevier's Scopus abstracts in order to the extract relevant data to define a technological scope. The automatic definition tool is then applied on four case studies: Artificial Intelligence and Data Science. The results show how the tool can provide many crucial information in the definition process of a technological field. In particular for the target technological field (or technology), it provides the definition and other elements related to the target.


Incentivized Bandit Learning with Self-Reinforcing User Preferences

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we investigate a new multi-armed bandit (MAB) online learning model that considers real-world phenomena in many recommender systems: (i) the learning agent cannot pull the arms by itself and thus has to offer rewards to users to incentivize arm-pulling indirectly; and (ii) if users with specific arm preferences are well rewarded, they induce a "self-reinforcing" effect in the sense that they will attract more users of similar arm preferences. Besides addressing the tradeoff of exploration and exploitation, another key feature of this new MAB model is to balance reward and incentivizing payment. The goal of the agent is to maximize the total reward over a fixed time horizon $T$ with a low total payment. Our contributions in this paper are two-fold: (i) We propose a new MAB model with random arm selection that considers the relationship of users' self-reinforcing preferences and incentives; and (ii) We leverage the properties of a multi-color Polya urn with nonlinear feedback model to propose two MAB policies termed "At-Least-$n$ Explore-Then-Commit" and "UCB-List". We prove that both policies achieve $O(log T)$ expected regret with $O(log T)$ expected payment over a time horizon $T$. We conduct numerical simulations to demonstrate and verify the performances of these two policies and study their robustness under various settings.


AI with swarm intelligence: A novel technology for cooperative analysis of big data

#artificialintelligence

Science and medicine are becoming increasingly digital. Analyzing the resulting volumes of information -- known as "big data" -- is considered a key to better treatment options. "Medical research data are a treasure. They can play a decisive role in developing personalized therapies that are tailored to each individual more precisely than conventional treatments," said Joachim Schultze, Director of Systems Medicine at the DZNE and professor at the Life & Medical Sciences Institute (LIMES) at the University of Bonn. "It's critical for science to be able to use such data as comprehensively and from as many sources as possible."


Experian Showcases Innovation Using Artificial Intelligence

#artificialintelligence

WIRE)--Experian's best-in-class digital credit risk decisioning solutions have garnered industry-wide recognition, winning two recent awards focused on application excellence in artificial intelligence. Experian prides itself on using data and new technologies that solve real-world problems for businesses and consumers. "We are proud to be recognized by two prestigious institutions for our work with artificial intelligence," said Steven Wagner, Global Managing Director, Experian Decision Analytics. "Experian remains dedicated to using the latest in advanced analytics to help businesses build and protect trusted relationships with customers." Experian Decision Analytics was recognized as a winner of the Artificial Intelligence Excellence Award program by Business Intelligence Group for its credit and collections decisioning solution, PowerCurve, which features intelligent agent-customer assist that processes complex, regulated, and subjective interactions with customers, revolutionizing how they digitally interact, on their terms, with lenders.