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Analyzing 25 Years of Privacy Policies with Machine Learning

#artificialintelligence

A recent study has used machine learning analysis techniques to chart the readability, usefulness, length and complexity of more than 50,000 privacy policies on popular websites in a period covering 25 years from 1996 to 2021. The research concludes that the average reader would need to devote 400 hours of'annual reading time' (more than an hour a day) in order to penetrate the growing word counts, obfuscating language and vague language use that characterize the modern privacy policies of some of the most-frequented websites. 'The average policy length has almost doubled in the last ten years, with 2159 words in March 2011 and 4191 words in March 2021, and almost quadrupled since 2000 (1146 words).' The mean word count and sentence count among the corpus studied, over a 25 year period. Though the rate of increase in length spiked when the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) protections came into force, the paper discounts these variations as'small effect sizes' which appear to be insignificant against the broader long-term trend.


AI is better at hiring staff than human bosses, study finds

Daily Mail - Science & tech

Artificial intelligence (AI) is better at hiring staff than human bosses, but companies still don't trust it in the recruitment process, a new study finds. Researchers in London have conducted a review of previous studies that assessed the effectiveness of AI as a recruitment tool. They found AI is'equal to or better than' human recruiters when it comes to hiring people who go on to perform well at work. Although AI had limited abilities in predicting employee outcomes after they were hired, AI is'fairer' and marked a substantial improvement over humans, they reveal. AI also boosts the'fill-rate' for open positions and is'mostly better than humans' at improving diversity in the workplace.


Why AI: Consumers Approve Its Use For Personalization And CX

#artificialintelligence

Consumers accept the role of AI in marketing communications -- up to a point. Overall, 37% like AI and find it helpful, although that number rises to 58% among people who use AI tools at work or school, according to Getting Personal: Consumer Perspectives on AI in Marketing and Customer Service, a study released Tuesday by CDP.com. But only 28% of those who do not work with AI say it's useful. In general, 43% feel it depends on the company. Among all respondents, 23% say AI has a negative impact on the customer experience, while 39% believe it is positive and 38% are neutral. Any negativity expressed may be due to privacy concerns.


LTC-SUM: Lightweight Client-driven Personalized Video Summarization Framework Using 2D CNN

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper proposes a novel lightweight thumbnail container-based summarization (LTC-SUM) framework for full feature-length videos. This framework generates a personalized keyshot summary for concurrent users by using the computational resource of the end-user device. State-of-the-art methods that acquire and process entire video data to generate video summaries are highly computationally intensive. In this regard, the proposed LTC-SUM method uses lightweight thumbnails to handle the complex process of detecting events. This significantly reduces computational complexity and improves communication and storage efficiency by resolving computational and privacy bottlenecks in resource-constrained end-user devices. These improvements were achieved by designing a lightweight 2D CNN model to extract features from thumbnails, which helped select and retrieve only a handful of specific segments. Extensive quantitative experiments on a set of full 18 feature-length videos (approximately 32.9 h in duration) showed that the proposed method is significantly computationally efficient than state-of-the-art methods on the same end-user device configurations. Joint qualitative assessments of the results of 56 participants showed that participants gave higher ratings to the summaries generated using the proposed method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in designing a fully client-driven personalized keyshot video summarization framework using thumbnail containers for feature-length videos.


Deloitte 2022 marketing trends: toward human-first data experiences

#artificialintelligence

Companies should embrace technological innovations, but always with a human touch. For the 2022 Global Marketing Trends report researchers interviewed over a thousand chief executives, marketers and others on a variety of marketing topics and polled 11.500 consumers across 19 countries. The researchers distinguish seven trends among high-growth companies that will continue to play a major role in 2022. The conclusions of the report are optimistic: if last year was responding to an unprecedented shock, 2022 is about recovering or even thriving in a customer centric world. Purpose driving new growth Perhaps the most important conclusion in the report is about purpose as a driving force for new growth.


Forecasting: theory and practice

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.


Big Data Industry Predictions for 2022 - insideBIGDATA

#artificialintelligence

As a result, all major cloud providers are either offering or promising to offer Kubernetes options that run on-premises and in multiple clouds. While Kubernetes is making the cloud more open, cloud providers are trying to become "stickier" with more vertical integration. From database-as-a-service (DBaaS) to AI/ML services, the cloud providers are offering options that make it easier and faster to code. Organizations should not take a "one size fits all" approach to the cloud. For applications and environments that can scale quickly, Kubernetes may be the right option. For stable applications, leveraging DBaaS and built-in AI/ML could be the perfect solution. For infrastructure services, SaaS offerings may be the optimal approach. The number of options will increase, so create basic business guidelines for your teams.


Sequential Modelling with Applications to Music Recommendation, Fact-Checking, and Speed Reading

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Sequential modelling entails making sense of sequential data, which naturally occurs in a wide array of domains. One example is systems that interact with users, log user actions and behaviour, and make recommendations of items of potential interest to users on the basis of their previous interactions. In such cases, the sequential order of user interactions is often indicative of what the user is interested in next. Similarly, for systems that automatically infer the semantics of text, capturing the sequential order of words in a sentence is essential, as even a slight re-ordering could significantly alter its original meaning. This thesis makes methodological contributions and new investigations of sequential modelling for the specific application areas of systems that recommend music tracks to listeners and systems that process text semantics in order to automatically fact-check claims, or "speed read" text for efficient further classification.


Cross-lingual Transfer for Text Classification with Dictionary-based Heterogeneous Graph

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In cross-lingual text classification, it is required that task-specific training data in high-resource source languages are available, where the task is identical to that of a low-resource target language. However, collecting such training data can be infeasible because of the labeling cost, task characteristics, and privacy concerns. This paper proposes an alternative solution that uses only task-independent word embeddings of high-resource languages and bilingual dictionaries. First, we construct a dictionary-based heterogeneous graph (DHG) from bilingual dictionaries. This opens the possibility to use graph neural networks for cross-lingual transfer. The remaining challenge is the heterogeneity of DHG because multiple languages are considered. To address this challenge, we propose dictionary-based heterogeneous graph neural network (DHGNet) that effectively handles the heterogeneity of DHG by two-step aggregations, which are word-level and language-level aggregations. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms pretrained models even though it does not access to large corpora. Furthermore, it can perform well even though dictionaries contain many incorrect translations. Its robustness allows the usage of a wider range of dictionaries such as an automatically constructed dictionary and crowdsourced dictionary, which are convenient for real-world applications.


Towards Personalized and Human-in-the-Loop Document Summarization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The ubiquitous availability of computing devices and the widespread use of the internet have generated a large amount of data continuously. Therefore, the amount of available information on any given topic is far beyond humans' processing capacity to properly process, causing what is known as information overload. To efficiently cope with large amounts of information and generate content with significant value to users, we require identifying, merging and summarising information. Data summaries can help gather related information and collect it into a shorter format that enables answering complicated questions, gaining new insight and discovering conceptual boundaries. This thesis focuses on three main challenges to alleviate information overload using novel summarisation techniques. It further intends to facilitate the analysis of documents to support personalised information extraction. This thesis separates the research issues into four areas, covering (i) feature engineering in document summarisation, (ii) traditional static and inflexible summaries, (iii) traditional generic summarisation approaches, and (iv) the need for reference summaries. We propose novel approaches to tackle these challenges, by: i)enabling automatic intelligent feature engineering, ii) enabling flexible and interactive summarisation, iii) utilising intelligent and personalised summarisation approaches. The experimental results prove the efficiency of the proposed approaches compared to other state-of-the-art models. We further propose solutions to the information overload problem in different domains through summarisation, covering network traffic data, health data and business process data.