In this article, we will discuss the mathematical intuition behind Naive Bayes Classifiers, and we'll also see how to implement this on Python. This model is easy to build and is mostly used for large datasets. It is a probabilistic machine learning model that is used for classification problems. The core of the classifier depends on the Bayes theorem with an assumption of independence among predictors. That means changing the value of a feature doesn't change the value of another feature.
Nowadays businesses are focusing on automation. They are trying to automate all manual tasks that consume a lot of human effort and time. Today machine learning algorithms have taken over the process that was considered to be mundane or dangerous. Technology is continuously churning businesses making them efficient, smarter, and capable. As technology has become accessible, new innovations in business processes have emerged. The technology revolution was triggered by the democratization of computing tools and techniques which are now easily available.
As the world is rapidly moving towards digitization and money transactions are becoming cashless, the use of credit cards has rapidly increased. The fraud activities associated with it have also been increasing which leads to a huge loss to the financial institutions. Therefore, we need to analyze and detect the fraudulent transaction from the non-fraudulent ones. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of various methods used to detect credit card fraud. These methodologies include Hidden Markov Model, Decision Trees, Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Genetic algorithm, Neural Networks, Random Forests, Bayesian Belief Network. A comprehensive analysis of various techniques is presented. We conclude the paper with the pros and cons of the same as stated in the respective papers.
Describing the relationship between the variables in a study domain and modelling the data generating mechanism is a fundamental problem in many empirical sciences. Probabilistic graphical models are one common approach to tackle the problem. Learning the graphical structure is computationally challenging and a fervent area of current research with a plethora of algorithms being developed. To facilitate the benchmarking of different methods, we present a novel automated workflow, called benchpress for producing scalable, reproducible, and platform-independent benchmarks of structure learning algorithms for probabilistic graphical models. Benchpress is interfaced via a simple JSON-file, which makes it accessible for all users, while the code is designed in a fully modular fashion to enable researchers to contribute additional methodologies. Benchpress currently provides an interface to a large number of state-of-the-art algorithms from libraries such as BDgraph, BiDAG, bnlearn, GOBNILP, pcalg, r.blip, scikit-learn, TETRAD, and trilearn as well as a variety of methods for data generating models and performance evaluation. Alongside user-defined models and randomly generated datasets, the software tool also includes a number of standard datasets and graphical models from the literature, which may be included in a benchmarking workflow. We demonstrate the applicability of this workflow for learning Bayesian networks in four typical data scenarios. The source code and documentation is publicly available from http://github.com/felixleopoldo/benchpress.
Conditional Neural Processes (CNP; Garnelo et al., 2018) are an attractive family of meta-learning models which produce well-calibrated predictions, enable fast inference at test time, and are trainable via a simple maximum likelihood procedure. A limitation of CNPs is their inability to model dependencies in the outputs. This significantly hurts predictive performance and renders it impossible to draw coherent function samples, which limits the applicability of CNPs in down-stream applications and decision making. NeuralProcesses (NPs; Garnelo et al., 2018) attempt to alleviate this issue by using latent variables, rely-ing on these to model output dependencies, but introduces difficulties stemming from approximate inference. One recent alternative (Bruinsma et al.,2021), which we refer to as the FullConvGNP, models dependencies in the predictions while still being trainable via exact maximum-likelihood.Unfortunately, the FullConvGNP relies on expensive 2D-dimensional convolutions, which limit its applicability to only one-dimensional data.In this work, we present an alternative way to model output dependencies which also lends it-self maximum likelihood training but, unlike the FullConvGNP, can be scaled to two- and three-dimensional data. The proposed models exhibit good performance in synthetic experiments
The ubiquitous availability of computing devices and the widespread use of the internet have generated a large amount of data continuously. Therefore, the amount of available information on any given topic is far beyond humans' processing capacity to properly process, causing what is known as information overload. To efficiently cope with large amounts of information and generate content with significant value to users, we require identifying, merging and summarising information. Data summaries can help gather related information and collect it into a shorter format that enables answering complicated questions, gaining new insight and discovering conceptual boundaries. This thesis focuses on three main challenges to alleviate information overload using novel summarisation techniques. It further intends to facilitate the analysis of documents to support personalised information extraction. This thesis separates the research issues into four areas, covering (i) feature engineering in document summarisation, (ii) traditional static and inflexible summaries, (iii) traditional generic summarisation approaches, and (iv) the need for reference summaries. We propose novel approaches to tackle these challenges, by: i)enabling automatic intelligent feature engineering, ii) enabling flexible and interactive summarisation, iii) utilising intelligent and personalised summarisation approaches. The experimental results prove the efficiency of the proposed approaches compared to other state-of-the-art models. We further propose solutions to the information overload problem in different domains through summarisation, covering network traffic data, health data and business process data.
This paper addresses the problem of learning a sparse structure Bayesian network from high-dimensional discrete data. Compared to continuous Bayesian networks, learning a discrete Bayesian network is a challenging problem due to the large parameter space. Although many approaches have been developed for learning continuous Bayesian networks, few approaches have been proposed for the discrete ones. In this paper, we address learning Bayesian networks as an optimization problem and propose a score function that satisfies the sparsity and the DAG property simultaneously. Besides, we implement a block-wised stochastic coordinate descent algorithm to optimize the score function. Specifically, we use a variance reducing method in our optimization algorithm to make the algorithm work efficiently in high-dimensional data. The proposed approach is applied to synthetic data from well-known benchmark networks. The quality, scalability, and robustness of the constructed network are measured. Compared to some competitive approaches, the results reveal that our algorithm outperforms the others in evaluation metrics.
Let us talk about Bayesian Network. Bayesian Network is a probablistic model represent a set of random variables and their conditional dependencies. This model can be represented using DAG (Directed Acrylic Graph) where nodes can be observable quantities, latent variables (not observable, inferred only) and not known parameters or hypothesis. DAG can help to understand the model in a easy manner. Edges in DAG represents conditional dependencies between nodes.
We introduce a novel geometry-informed irreversible perturbation that accelerates convergence of the Langevin algorithm for Bayesian computation. It is well documented that there exist perturbations to the Langevin dynamics that preserve its invariant measure while accelerating its convergence. Irreversible perturbations and reversible perturbations (such as Riemannian manifold Langevin dynamics (RMLD)) have separately been shown to improve the performance of Langevin samplers. We consider these two perturbations simultaneously by presenting a novel form of irreversible perturbation for RMLD that is informed by the underlying geometry. Through numerical examples, we show that this new irreversible perturbation can improve performance of the estimator over reversible perturbations that do not take the geometry into account. Moreover we demonstrate that irreversible perturbations generally can be implemented in conjunction with the stochastic gradient version of the Langevin algorithm. Lastly, while continuous-time irreversible perturbations cannot impair the performance of a Langevin estimator, the situation can sometimes be more complicated when discretization is considered. To this end, we describe a discrete-time example in which irreversibility increases both the bias and variance of the resulting estimator.
Most data is automatically collected and only ever "seen" by algorithms. Yet, data compressors preserve perceptual fidelity rather than just the information needed by algorithms performing downstream tasks. In this paper, we characterize the bit-rate required to ensure high performance on all predictive tasks that are invariant under a set of transformations, such as data augmentations. Based on our theory, we design unsupervised objectives for training neural compressors. Using these objectives, we train a generic image compressor that achieves substantial rate savings (more than $1000\times$ on ImageNet) compared to JPEG on 8 datasets, without decreasing downstream classification performance.