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This AI can explain how it solves Rubik's Cube--and that's a big deal


However, these AI algorithms cannot explain the thought processes behind their decisions. A computer that masters protein folding and also tells researchers more about the rules of biology is much more useful than a computer that folds proteins without explanation. Therefore, AI researchers like me are now turning our efforts toward developing AI algorithms that can explain themselves in a manner that humans can understand. If we can do this, I believe that AI will be able to uncover and teach people new facts about the world that have not yet been discovered, leading to new innovations. One field of AI, called reinforcement learning, studies how computers can learn from their own experiences.

Enhancing Balanced Graph Edge Partition with Effective Local Search Artificial Intelligence

Graph partition is a key component to achieve workload balance and reduce job completion time in parallel graph processing systems. Among the various partition strategies, edge partition has demonstrated more promising performance in power-law graphs than vertex partition and thereby has been more widely adopted as the default partition strategy by existing graph systems. The graph edge partition problem, which is to split the edge set into multiple balanced parts to minimize the total number of copied vertices, has been widely studied from the view of optimization and algorithms. In this paper, we study local search algorithms for this problem to further improve the partition results from existing methods. More specifically, we propose two novel concepts, namely adjustable edges and blocks. Based on these, we develop a greedy heuristic as well as an improved search algorithm utilizing the property of the max-flow model. To evaluate the performance of our algorithms, we first provide adequate theoretical analysis in terms of the approximation quality. We significantly improve the previously known approximation ratio for this problem. Then we conduct extensive experiments on a large number of benchmark datasets and state-of-the-art edge partition strategies. The results show that our proposed local search framework can further improve the quality of graph partition by a wide margin.

Planning From Pixels in Atari With Learned Symbolic Representations Artificial Intelligence

Width-based planning methods have been shown to yield state-of-the-art performance in the Atari 2600 domain using pixel input. One successful approach, RolloutIW, represents states with the B-PROST boolean feature set. An augmented version of RolloutIW, $\pi$-IW, shows that learned features can be competitive with handcrafted ones for width-based search. In this paper, we leverage variational autoencoders (VAEs) to learn features directly from pixels in a principled manner, and without supervision. The inference model of the trained VAEs extracts boolean features from pixels, and RolloutIW plans with these features. The resulting combination outperforms the original RolloutIW and human professional play on Atari 2600 and drastically reduces the size of the feature set.

Solving the Travelling Thief Problem based on Item Selection Weight and Reverse Order Allocation Artificial Intelligence

The Travelling Thief Problem (TTP) is a challenging combinatorial optimization problem that attracts many scholars. The TTP interconnects two well-known NP-hard problems: the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) and the 0-1 Knapsack Problem (KP). Increasingly algorithms have been proposed for solving this novel problem that combines two interdependent sub-problems. In this paper, TTP is investigated theoretically and empirically. An algorithm based on the score value calculated by our proposed formulation in picking items and sorting items in the reverse order in the light of the scoring value is proposed to solve the problem. Different approaches for solving the TTP are compared and analyzed; the experimental investigations suggest that our proposed approach is very efficient in meeting or beating current state-of-the-art heuristic solutions on a comprehensive set of benchmark TTP instances.

Variational Beam Search for Online Learning with Distribution Shifts Machine Learning

We consider the problem of online learning in the presence of sudden distribution shifts as frequently encountered in applications such as autonomous navigation. Distribution shifts require constant performance monitoring and re-training. They may also be hard to detect and can lead to a slow but steady degradation in model performance. To address this problem we propose a new Bayesian meta-algorithm that can both (i) make inferences about subtle distribution shifts based on minimal sequential observations and (ii) accordingly adapt a model in an online fashion. The approach uses beam search over multiple change point hypotheses to perform inference on a hierarchical sequential latent variable modeling framework. Our proposed approach is model-agnostic, applicable to both supervised and unsupervised learning, and yields significant improvements over state-of-the-art Bayesian online learning approaches.

Nearly Minimax Optimal Reinforcement Learning for Linear Mixture Markov Decision Processes Machine Learning

We study reinforcement learning (RL) with linear function approximation where the underlying transition probability kernel of the Markov decision process (MDP) is a linear mixture model (Jia et al., 2020; Ayoub et al., 2020; Zhou et al., 2020) and the learning agent has access to either an integration or a sampling oracle of the individual basis kernels. We propose a new Bernstein-type concentration inequality for self-normalized martingales for linear bandit problems with bounded noise. Based on the new inequality, we propose a new, computationally efficient algorithm with linear function approximation named $\text{UCRL-VTR}^{+}$ for the aforementioned linear mixture MDPs in the episodic undiscounted setting. We show that $\text{UCRL-VTR}^{+}$ attains an $\tilde O(dH\sqrt{T})$ regret where $d$ is the dimension of feature mapping, $H$ is the length of the episode and $T$ is the number of interactions with the MDP. We also prove a matching lower bound $\Omega(dH\sqrt{T})$ for this setting, which shows that $\text{UCRL-VTR}^{+}$ is minimax optimal up to logarithmic factors. In addition, we propose the $\text{UCLK}^{+}$ algorithm for the same family of MDPs under discounting and show that it attains an $\tilde O(d\sqrt{T}/(1-\gamma)^{1.5})$ regret, where $\gamma\in [0,1)$ is the discount factor. Our upper bound matches the lower bound $\Omega(d\sqrt{T}/(1-\gamma)^{1.5})$ proved in Zhou et al. (2020) up to logarithmic factors, suggesting that $\text{UCLK}^{+}$ is nearly minimax optimal. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first computationally efficient, nearly minimax optimal algorithms for RL with linear function approximation.

Learning to Stop: Dynamic Simulation Monte-Carlo Tree Search Artificial Intelligence

Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) has achieved state-of-the-art results in many domains such as Go and Atari games when combining with deep neural networks (DNNs). When more simulations are executed, MCTS can achieve higher performance but also requires enormous amounts of CPU and GPU resources. However, not all states require a long searching time to identify the best action that the agent can find. For example, in 19x19 Go and NoGo, we found that for more than half of the states, the best action predicted by DNN remains unchanged even after searching 2 minutes. This implies that a significant amount of resources can be saved if we are able to stop the searching earlier when we are confident with the current searching result. In this paper, we propose to achieve this goal by predicting the uncertainty of the current searching status and use the result to decide whether we should stop searching. With our algorithm, called Dynamic Simulation MCTS (DS-MCTS), we can speed up a NoGo agent trained by AlphaZero 2.5 times faster while maintaining a similar winning rate. Also, under the same average simulation count, our method can achieve a 61% winning rate against the original program.

Optimizing Discrete Spaces via Expensive Evaluations: A Learning to Search Framework Artificial Intelligence

We consider the problem of optimizing expensive black-box functions over discrete spaces (e.g., sets, sequences, graphs). The key challenge is to select a sequence of combinatorial structures to evaluate, in order to identify high-performing structures as quickly as possible. Our main contribution is to introduce and evaluate a new learning-to-search framework for this problem called L2S-DISCO. The key insight is to employ search procedures guided by control knowledge at each step to select the next structure and to improve the control knowledge as new function evaluations are observed. We provide a concrete instantiation of L2S-DISCO for local search procedure and empirically evaluate it on diverse real-world benchmarks. Results show the efficacy of L2S-DISCO over state-of-the-art algorithms in solving complex optimization problems.

General Policies, Serializations, and Planning Width Artificial Intelligence

It has been observed that in many of the benchmark planning domains, atomic goals can be reached with a simple polynomial exploration procedure, called IW, that runs in time exponential in the problem width. Such problems have indeed a bounded width: a width that does not grow with the number of problem variables and is often no greater than two. Yet, while the notion of width has become part of the state-of-the-art planning algorithms like BFWS, there is still no good explanation for why so many benchmark domains have bounded width. In this work, we address this question by relating bounded width and serialized width to ideas of generalized planning, where general policies aim to solve multiple instances of a planning problem all at once. We show that bounded width is a property of planning domains that admit optimal general policies in terms of features that are explicitly or implicitly represented in the domain encoding. The results are extended to much larger class of domains with bounded serialized width where the general policies do not have to be optimal. The study leads also to a new simple, meaningful, and expressive language for specifying domain serializations in the form of policy sketches which can be used for encoding domain control knowledge by hand or for learning it from traces. The use of sketches and the meaning of the theoretical results are all illustrated through a number of examples.

Understanding The Binary Search Algorithm In Python


Algorithms are an essential aspect of programming. In this article, we will cover one such cool algorithm that can be used to efficiently find the location of a specific element in a list or array. We will cover the binary search algorithm in complete detail and try to implement it with python. In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a finite sequence of well-defined, computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation. One such algorithm that we will cover in this article is the binary search algorithm.