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On the Verification and Validation of AI Navigation Algorithms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper explores the state of the art on to methods to verify and validate navigation algorithms for autonomous surface ships. We perform a systematic mapping study to find research works published in the last 10 years proposing new algorithms for autonomous navigation and collision avoidance and we have extracted what verification and validation approaches have been applied on these algorithms. We observe that most research works use simulations to validate their algorithms. However, these simulations often involve just a few scenarios designed manually. This raises the question if the algorithms have been validated properly. To remedy this, we propose the use of a systematic scenario-based testing approach to validate navigation algorithms extensively.


A Hybrid Pricing and Cutting Approach for the Multi-Shift Full Truckload Vehicle Routing Problem

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Full truckload transportation (FTL) in the form of freight containers represents one of the most important transportation modes in international trade. Due to large volume and scale, in FTL, delivery time is often less critical but cost and service quality are crucial. Therefore, efficiently solving large scale multiple shift FTL problems is becoming more and more important and requires further research. In one of our earlier studies, a set covering model and a three-stage solution method were developed for a multi-shift FTL problem. This paper extends the previous work and presents a significantly more efficient approach by hybridising pricing and cutting strategies with metaheuristics (a variable neighbourhood search and a genetic algorithm). The metaheuristics were adopted to find promising columns (vehicle routes) guided by pricing and cuts are dynamically generated to eliminate infeasible flow assignments caused by incompatible commodities. Computational experiments on real-life and artificial benchmark FTL problems showed superior performance both in terms of computational time and solution quality, when compared with previous MIP based three-stage methods and two existing metaheuristics. The proposed cutting and heuristic pricing approach can efficiently solve large scale real-life FTL problems.


A Survey on the Explainability of Supervised Machine Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Predictions obtained by, e.g., artificial neural networks have a high accuracy but humans often perceive the models as black boxes. Insights about the decision making are mostly opaque for humans. Particularly understanding the decision making in highly sensitive areas such as healthcare or fifinance, is of paramount importance. The decision-making behind the black boxes requires it to be more transparent, accountable, and understandable for humans. This survey paper provides essential definitions, an overview of the different principles and methodologies of explainable Supervised Machine Learning (SML). We conduct a state-of-the-art survey that reviews past and recent explainable SML approaches and classifies them according to the introduced definitions. Finally, we illustrate principles by means of an explanatory case study and discuss important future directions.


A Level-wise Taxonomic Perspective on Automated Machine Learning to Date and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Automated machine learning (AutoML) is essentially automating the process of applying machine learning to real-world problems. The primary goals of AutoML tools are to provide methods and processes to make Machine Learning available for non-Machine Learning experts (domain experts), to improve efficiency of Machine Learning and to accelerate research on Machine Learning. Although automation and efficiency are some of AutoML's main selling points, the process still requires a surprising level of human involvement. A number of vital steps of the machine learning pipeline, including understanding the attributes of domain-specific data, defining prediction problems, creating a suitable training data set etc. still tend to be done manually by a data scientist on an ad-hoc basis. Often, this process requires a lot of back-and-forth between the data scientist and domain experts, making the whole process more difficult and inefficient. Altogether, AutoML systems are still far from a "real automatic system". In this review article, we present a level-wise taxonomic perspective on AutoML systems to-date and beyond, i.e., we introduce a new classification system with seven levels to distinguish AutoML systems based on their level of autonomy. We first start with a discussion on how an end-to-end Machine learning pipeline actually looks like and which sub-tasks of Machine learning Pipeline has indeed been automated so far. Next, we highlight the sub-tasks which are still done manually by a data-scientist in most cases and how that limits a domain expert's access to Machine learning. Then, we introduce the novel level-based taxonomy of AutoML systems and define each level according to their scope of automation support. Finally, we provide a road-map of future research endeavor in the area of AutoML and discuss some important challenges in achieving this ambitious goal.


The bi-objective multimodal car-sharing problem

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The aim of the bi-objective multimodal car-sharing problem (BiO-MMCP) is to determine the optimal mode of transport assignment for trips and to schedule the routes of available cars and users whilst minimizing cost and maximizing user satisfaction. We investigate the BiO-MMCP from a user-centred point of view. As user satisfaction is a crucial aspect in shared mobility systems, we consider user preferences in a second objective. Users may choose and rank their preferred modes of transport for different times of the day. In this way we account for, e.g., different traffic conditions throughout the planning horizon. We study different variants of the problem. In the base problem, the sequence of tasks a user has to fulfill is fixed in advance and travel times as well as preferences are constant over the planning horizon. In variant 2, time-dependent travel times and preferences are introduced. In variant 3, we examine the challenges when allowing additional routing decisions. Variant 4 integrates variants 2 and 3. For this last variant, we develop a branch-and-cut algorithm which is embedded in two bi-objective frameworks, namely the $\epsilon$-constraint method and a weighting binary search method. Computational experiments show that the branch-and cut algorithm outperforms the MIP formulation and we discuss changing solutions along the Pareto frontier.


Machine Learning in Airline Crew Pairing to Construct Initial Clusters for Dynamic Constraint Aggregation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The crew pairing problem (CPP) is generally modelled as a set partitioning problem where the flights have to be partitioned in pairings. A pairing is a sequence of flight legs separated by connection time and rest periods that starts and ends at the same base. Because of the extensive list of complex rules and regulations, determining whether a sequence of flights constitutes a feasible pairing can be quite difficult by itself, making CPP one of the hardest of the airline planning problems. In this paper, we first propose to improve the prototype Baseline solver of Desaulniers et al. (2020) by adding dynamic control strategies to obtain an efficient solver for large-scale CPPs: Commercial-GENCOL-DCA. These solvers are designed to aggregate the flights covering constraints to reduce the size of the problem. Then, we use machine learning (ML) to produce clusters of flights having a high probability of being performed consecutively by the same crew. The solver combines several advanced Operations Research techniques to assemble and modify these clusters, when necessary, to produce a good solution. We show, on monthly CPPs with up to 50 000 flights, that Commercial-GENCOL-DCA with clusters produced by ML-based heuristics outperforms Baseline fed by initial clusters that are pairings of a solution obtained by rolling horizon with GENCOL. The reduction of solution cost averages between 6.8% and 8.52%, which is mainly due to the reduction in the cost of global constraints between 69.79% and 78.11%.


Large-Scale Cargo Distribution

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This study focuses on the design and development of methods for generating cargo distribution plans for large-scale logistics networks. It uses data from three large logistics operators while focusing on cross border logistics operations using one large graph. The approach uses a three-step methodology to first represent the logistic infrastructure as a graph, then partition the graph into smaller size regions, and finally generate cargo distribution plans for each individual region. The initial graph representation has been extracted from regional graphs by spectral clustering and is then further used for computing the distribution plan. The approach introduces methods for each of the modelling steps. The proposed approach on using regionalization of large logistics infrastructure for generating partial plans, enables scaling to thousands of drop-off locations. Results also show that the proposed approach scales better than the state-of-the-art, while preserving the quality of the solution. Our methodology is suited to address the main challenge in transforming rigid large logistics infrastructure into dynamic, just-in-time, and point-to-point delivery-oriented logistics operations.


Particle Swarm Optimized Federated Learning For Industrial IoT and Smart City Services

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Most of the research on Federated Learning (FL) has focused on analyzing global optimization, privacy, and communication, with limited attention focusing on analyzing the critical matter of performing efficient local training and inference at the edge devices. One of the main challenges for successful and efficient training and inference on edge devices is the careful selection of parameters to build local Machine Learning (ML) models. To this aim, we propose a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based technique to optimize the hyperparameter settings for the local ML models in an FL environment. We evaluate the performance of our proposed technique using two case studies. First, we consider smart city services and use an experimental transportation dataset for traffic prediction as a proxy for this setting. Second, we consider Industrial IoT (IIoT) services and use the real-time telemetry dataset to predict the probability that a machine will fail shortly due to component failures. Our experiments indicate that PSO provides an efficient approach for tuning the hyperparameters of deep Long short-term memory (LSTM) models when compared to the grid search method. Our experiments illustrate that the number of clients-server communication rounds to explore the landscape of configurations to find the near-optimal parameters are greatly reduced (roughly by two orders of magnitude needing only 2%--4% of the rounds compared to state of the art non-PSO-based approaches). We also demonstrate that utilizing the proposed PSO-based technique to find the near-optimal configurations for FL and centralized learning models does not adversely affect the accuracy of the models.


A Multiperiod Workforce Scheduling and Routing Problem with Dependent Tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we study a new Workforce Scheduling and Routing Problem, denoted Multiperiod Workforce Scheduling and Routing Problem with Dependent Tasks. In this problem, customers request services from a company. Each service is composed of dependent tasks, which are executed by teams of varying skills along one or more days. Tasks belonging to a service may be executed by different teams, and customers may be visited more than once a day, as long as precedences are not violated. The objective is to schedule and route teams so that the makespan is minimized, i.e., all services are completed in the minimum number of days. In order to solve this problem, we propose a Mixed-Integer Programming model, a constructive algorithm and heuristic algorithms based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. The presence of precedence constraints makes it difficult to develop efficient local search algorithms. This motivates the choice of the ACO metaheuristic, which is effective in guiding the construction process towards good solutions. Computational results show that the model is capable of consistently solving problems with up to about 20 customers and 60 tasks. In most cases, the best performing ACO algorithm was able to match the best solution provided by the model in a fraction of its computational time.


Swarm Intelligence for Next-Generation Wireless Networks: Recent Advances and Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Due to the proliferation of smart devices and emerging applications, many next-generation technologies have been paid for the development of wireless networks. Even though commercial 5G has just been widely deployed in some countries, there have been initial efforts from academia and industrial communities for 6G systems. In such a network, a very large number of devices and applications are emerged, along with heterogeneity of technologies, architectures, mobile data, etc., and optimizing such a network is of utmost importance. Besides convex optimization and game theory, swarm intelligence (SI) has recently appeared as a promising optimization tool for wireless networks. As a new subdivision of artificial intelligence, SI is inspired by the collective behaviors of societies of biological species. In SI, simple agents with limited capabilities would achieve intelligent strategies for high-dimensional and challenging problems, so it has recently found many applications in next-generation wireless networks (NGN). However, researchers may not be completely aware of the full potential of SI techniques. In this work, our primary focus will be the integration of these two domains: NGN and SI. Firstly, we provide an overview of SI techniques from fundamental concepts to well-known optimizers. Secondly, we review the applications of SI to settle emerging issues in NGN, including spectrum management and resource allocation, wireless caching and edge computing, network security, and several other miscellaneous issues. Finally, we highlight open challenges and issues in the literature, and introduce some interesting directions for future research.