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Implementing Particle Swarm Optimization in Tensorflow

#artificialintelligence

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Features of a smart city

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A smart city is a city that uses technology to provide services and solve city problems. The main goals of a smart city are to improve policy efficiency, reduce waste and inconvenience, improve social and economic quality, and maximize social inclusion. Due to the breadth of technologies that have been implemented under the smart city label, it is difficult to distill a precise definition of a smart city. As the world's population continues to urbanize – by 2050, 66% of the world's population is expected to be urban – there is a global trend toward the creation of smart cities. This tendency not only causes many physical, social, behavioural, economic, and infrastructure issues, but it also creates many opportunities.


Oscars 2022: Who Got More Winners Right, AI or the Movie Experts?

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Every year for the last six years, Unanimous AI has been more accurate than movie critics at predicting Oscar winners. It uses swarm intelligence the power of interactive group decisions enhanced by AI – to transform regular people into expert decision-makers. How did it do this year? Unanimous AI took a group of regular movie fans and created a'hive mind' in which their combined choices are smarter than those of any individual member. "We can take a group of people and turn them into a super organism," founder Louis Rosenberg told IoT World Today's sister publication AI Business.


DeepSensor: Deep Learning Testing Framework Based on Neuron Sensitivity

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Despite impressive capabilities and outstanding performance, deep neural network(DNN) has captured increasing public concern for its security problem, due to frequent occurrence of erroneous behaviors. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct systematically testing before its deployment to real-world applications. Existing testing methods have provided fine-grained criteria based on neuron coverage and reached high exploratory degree of testing. But there is still a gap between the neuron coverage and model's robustness evaluation. To bridge the gap, we observed that neurons which change the activation value dramatically due to minor perturbation are prone to trigger incorrect corner cases. Motivated by it, we propose neuron sensitivity and develop a novel white-box testing framework for DNN, donated as DeepSensor. The number of sensitive neurons is maximized by particle swarm optimization, thus diverse corner cases could be triggered and neuron coverage be further improved when compared with baselines. Besides, considerable robustness enhancement can be reached when adopting testing examples based on neuron sensitivity for retraining. Extensive experiments implemented on scalable datasets and models can well demonstrate the testing effectiveness and robustness improvement of DeepSensor.


A Survey of Methods for Automated Algorithm Configuration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Algorithm configuration (AC) is concerned with the automated search of the most suitable parameter configuration of a parametrized algorithm. There is currently a wide variety of AC problem variants and methods proposed in the literature. Existing reviews do not take into account all derivatives of the AC problem, nor do they offer a complete classification scheme. To this end, we introduce taxonomies to describe the AC problem and features of configuration methods, respectively. We review existing AC literature within the lens of our taxonomies, outline relevant design choices of configuration approaches, contrast methods and problem variants against each other, and describe the state of AC in industry. Finally, our review provides researchers and practitioners with a look at future research directions in the field of AC.


A multi-domain virtual network embedding algorithm with delay prediction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Virtual network embedding (VNE) is an crucial part of network virtualization (NV), which aims to map the virtual networks (VNs) to a shared substrate network (SN). With the emergence of various delay-sensitive applications, how to improve the delay performance of the system has become a hot topic in academic circles. Based on extensive research, we proposed a multi-domain virtual network embedding algorithm based on delay prediction (DP-VNE). Firstly, the candidate physical nodes are selected by estimating the delay of virtual requests, then particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the mapping process, so as to reduce the delay of the system. The simulation results show that compared with the other three advanced algorithms, the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the system delay while keeping other indicators unaffected.


IoV Scenario: Implementation of a Bandwidth Aware Algorithm in Wireless Network Communication Mode

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The wireless network communication mode represented by the Internet of vehicles (IoV) has been widely used. However, due to the limitations of traditional network architecture, resource scheduling in wireless network environment is still facing great challenges. This paper focuses on the allocation of bandwidth resources in the virtual network environment. This paper proposes a bandwidth aware multi domain virtual network embedding algorithm (BA-VNE). The algorithm is mainly aimed at the problem that users need a lot of bandwidth in wireless communication mode, and solves the problem of bandwidth resource allocation from the perspective of virtual network embedding (VNE). In order to improve the performance of the algorithm, we introduce particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to optimize the performance of the algorithm. In order to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm, we have carried out simulation experiments from link bandwidth, mapping cost and virtual network request (VNR) acceptance rate. The final results show that the proposed algorithm is better than other representative algorithms in the above indicators.


NLP Problem Solving Overview

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There are abstract and other pure sciences which have applications in conjunction with some areas to NLP. Some examples of this include the Whale Optimization Techniques, The Particle Swarm Optimization, Genetic Algorithms. All these are however included in optimization techniques but the key science behind these are either in biology or physical sciences. These techniques are for instance used to optimise the parameters of a deep learning model in say a recommender system or a fake news detection NLP task.


A Brief Overview of Physics-inspired Metaheuristic Optimization Techniques

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Metaheuristic algorithms are methods devised to efficiently solve computationally challenging optimization problems. Researchers have taken inspiration from various natural and physical processes alike to formulate meta-heuristics that have successfully provided near-optimal or optimal solutions to several engineering tasks. This chapter focuses on meta-heuristic algorithms modelled upon non-linear physical phenomena having a concrete optimization paradigm, having shown formidable exploration and exploitation abilities for such optimization problems. Specifically, this chapter focuses on several popular physics-based metaheuristics as well as describing the underlying unique physical processes associated with each algorithm.


A new Sparse Auto-encoder based Framework using Grey Wolf Optimizer for Data Classification Problem

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

One of the most important properties of deep auto-encoders (DAEs) is their capability to extract high level features from row data. Hence, especially recently, the autoencoders are preferred to be used in various classification problems such as image and voice recognition, computer security, medical data analysis, etc. Despite, its popularity and high performance, the training phase of autoencoders is still a challenging task, involving to select best parameters that let the model to approach optimal results. Different training approaches are applied to train sparse autoencoders. Previous studies and preliminary experiments reveal that those approaches may present remarkable results in same problems but also disappointing results can be obtained in other complex problems. Metaheuristic algorithms have emerged over the last two decades and are becoming an essential part of contemporary optimization techniques. Gray wolf optimization (GWO) is one of the current of those algorithms and is applied to train sparse auto-encoders for this study. This model is validated by employing several popular Gene expression databases. Results are compared with previous state-of-the art methods studied with the same data sets and also are compared with other popular metaheuristic algorithms, namely, Genetic Algorithms (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC). Results reveal that the performance of the trained model using GWO outperforms on both conventional models and models trained with most popular metaheuristic algorithms.