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Development and internal validation of a machine-learning-developed model for predicting 1-year mortality after fragility hip fracture - BMC Geriatrics

#artificialintelligence

Fragility hip fracture increases morbidity and mortality in older adult patients, especially within the first year. Identification of patients at high risk of death facilitates modification of associated perioperative factors that can reduce mortality. Various machine learning algorithms have been developed and are widely used in healthcare research, particularly for mortality prediction. This study aimed to develop and internally validate 7 machine learning models to predict 1-year mortality after fragility hip fracture. This retrospective study included patients with fragility hip fractures from a single center (Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand) from July 2016 to October 2018. A total of 492 patients were enrolled. They were randomly categorized into a training group (344 cases, 70%) or a testing group (148 cases, 30%). Various machine learning techniques were used: the Gradient Boosting Classifier (GB), Random Forests Classifier (RF), Artificial Neural Network Classifier (ANN), Logistic Regression Classifier (LR), Naive Bayes Classifier (NB), Support Vector Machine Classifier (SVM), and K-Nearest Neighbors Classifier (KNN). All models were internally validated by evaluating their performance and the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). For the testing dataset, the accuracies were GB model = 0.93, RF model = 0.95, ANN model = 0.94, LR model = 0.91, NB model = 0.89, SVM model = 0.90, and KNN model = 0.90. All models achieved high AUCs that ranged between 0.81 and 0.99. The RF model also provided a negative predictive value of 0.96, a positive predictive value of 0.93, a specificity of 0.99, and a sensitivity of 0.68. Our machine learning approach facilitated the successful development of an accurate model to predict 1-year mortality after fragility hip fracture. Several machine learning algorithms (eg, Gradient Boosting and Random Forest) had the potential to provide high predictive performance based on the clinical parameters of each patient. The web application is available at www.hipprediction.com . External validation in a larger group of patients or in different hospital settings is warranted to evaluate the clinical utility of this tool. Thai Clinical Trials Registry (22 February 2021; reg. no. TCTR20210222003 ).


Bayesian Statistics Overview and your first Bayesian Linear Regression Model

#artificialintelligence

Frequentist and Bayesian are two different versions of statistics. Frequentist is a more classical version, which, as the name suggests, rely on the long run frequency of events (data points) to calculate the variable of interest. Bayesian on the other hand, can also work without having a large number of events (in fact, it could work even with one data point!). The cardinal difference between the two is that: frequentist will give you a point estimate, whereas Bayesian will give you a distribution. Having a point estimate means that -- "we are certain that this is the output for this variable of interest". Whereas, having a distribution can be interpreted as -- "we have some belief that the mean of the distribution is the good estimate for this variable of interest, but there is uncertainty too, in the form of standard deviation".



Bernstein Flows for Flexible Posteriors in Variational Bayes

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Variational inference (VI) is a technique to approximate difficult to compute posteriors by optimization. In contrast to MCMC, VI scales to many observations. In the case of complex posteriors, however, state-of-the-art VI approaches often yield unsatisfactory posterior approximations. This paper presents Bernstein flow variational inference (BF-VI), a robust and easy-to-use method, flexible enough to approximate complex multivariate posteriors. BF-VI combines ideas from normalizing flows and Bernstein polynomial-based transformation models. In benchmark experiments, we compare BF-VI solutions with exact posteriors, MCMC solutions, and state-of-the-art VI methods including normalizing flow based VI. We show for low-dimensional models that BF-VI accurately approximates the true posterior; in higher-dimensional models, BF-VI outperforms other VI methods. Further, we develop with BF-VI a Bayesian model for the semi-structured Melanoma challenge data, combining a CNN model part for image data with an interpretable model part for tabular data, and demonstrate for the first time how the use of VI in semi-structured models.


Posterior Consistency for Bayesian Relevance Vector Machines

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Statistical modeling and inference problems with sample sizes substantially smaller than the number of available covariates are challenging. Chakraborty et al. (2012) did a full hierarchical Bayesian analysis of nonlinear regression in such situations using relevance vector machines based on reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). But they did not provide any theoretical properties associated with their procedure. The present paper revisits their problem, introduces a new class of global-local priors different from theirs, and provides results on posterior consistency as well as posterior contraction rates.


Mental Stress Detection using Data from Wearable and Non-wearable Sensors: A Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents a comprehensive review of methods covering significant subjective and objective human stress detection techniques available in the literature. The methods for measuring human stress responses could include subjective questionnaires (developed by psychologists) and objective markers observed using data from wearable and non-wearable sensors. In particular, wearable sensor-based methods commonly use data from electroencephalography, electrocardiogram, galvanic skin response, electromyography, electrodermal activity, heart rate, heart rate variability, and photoplethysmography both individually and in multimodal fusion strategies. Whereas, methods based on non-wearable sensors include strategies such as analyzing pupil dilation and speech, smartphone data, eye movement, body posture, and thermal imaging. Whenever a stressful situation is encountered by an individual, physiological, physical, or behavioral changes are induced which help in coping with the challenge at hand. A wide range of studies has attempted to establish a relationship between these stressful situations and the response of human beings by using different kinds of psychological, physiological, physical, and behavioral measures. Inspired by the lack of availability of a definitive verdict about the relationship of human stress with these different kinds of markers, a detailed survey about human stress detection methods is conducted in this paper. In particular, we explore how stress detection methods can benefit from artificial intelligence utilizing relevant data from various sources. This review will prove to be a reference document that would provide guidelines for future research enabling effective detection of human stress conditions.


Permuted and Unlinked Monotone Regression in $\mathbb{R}^d$: an approach based on mixture modeling and optimal transport

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Suppose that we have a regression problem with response variable Y in $\mathbb{R}^d$ and predictor X in $\mathbb{R}^d$, for $d \geq 1$. In permuted or unlinked regression we have access to separate unordered data on X and Y, as opposed to data on (X,Y)-pairs in usual regression. So far in the literature the case $d=1$ has received attention, see e.g., the recent papers by Rigollet and Weed [Information & Inference, 8, 619--717] and Balabdaoui et al. [J. Mach. Learn. Res., 22(172), 1--60]. In this paper, we consider the general multivariate setting with $d \geq 1$. We show that the notion of cyclical monotonicity of the regression function is sufficient for identification and estimation in the permuted/unlinked regression model. We study permutation recovery in the permuted regression setting and develop a computationally efficient and easy-to-use algorithm for denoising based on the Kiefer-Wolfowitz [Ann. Math. Statist., 27, 887--906] nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator and techniques from the theory of optimal transport. We provide explicit upper bounds on the associated mean squared denoising error for Gaussian noise. As in previous work on the case $d = 1$, the permuted/unlinked setting involves slow (logarithmic) rates of convergence rooting in the underlying deconvolution problem. Numerical studies corroborate our theoretical analysis and show that the proposed approach performs at least on par with the methods in the aforementioned prior work in the case $d = 1$ while achieving substantial reductions in terms of computational complexity.


Bayesian Regression Approach for Building and Stacking Predictive Models in Time Series Analytics

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The paper describes the use of Bayesian regression for building time series models and stacking different predictive models for time series. Using Bayesian regression for time series modeling with nonlinear trend was analyzed. This approach makes it possible to estimate an uncertainty of time series prediction and calculate value at risk characteristics. A hierarchical model for time series using Bayesian regression has been considered. In this approach, one set of parameters is the same for all data samples, other parameters can be different for different groups of data samples. Such an approach allows using this model in the case of short historical data for specified time series, e.g. in the case of new stores or new products in the sales prediction problem. In the study of predictive models stacking, the models ARIMA, Neural Network, Random Forest, Extra Tree were used for the prediction on the first level of model ensemble. On the second level, time series predictions of these models on the validation set were used for stacking by Bayesian regression. This approach gives distributions for regression coefficients of these models. It makes it possible to estimate the uncertainty contributed by each model to stacking result. The information about these distributions allows us to select an optimal set of stacking models, taking into account the domain knowledge. The probabilistic approach for stacking predictive models allows us to make risk assessment for the predictions that are important in a decision-making process.


Forecasting: theory and practice

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.


Artificial Intelligence and Design of Experiments for Assessing Security of Electricity Supply: A Review and Strategic Outlook

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Assessing the effects of the energy transition and liberalization of energy markets on resource adequacy is an increasingly important and demanding task. The rising complexity in energy systems requires adequate methods for energy system modeling leading to increased computational requirements. Furthermore, with complexity, uncertainty increases likewise calling for probabilistic assessments and scenario analyses. To adequately and efficiently address these various requirements, new methods from the field of data science are needed to accelerate current methods. With our systematic literature review, we want to close the gap between the three disciplines (1) assessment of security of electricity supply, (2) artificial intelligence, and (3) design of experiments. For this, we conduct a large-scale quantitative review on selected fields of application and methods and make a synthesis that relates the different disciplines to each other. Among other findings, we identify metamodeling of complex security of electricity supply models using AI methods and applications of AI-based methods for forecasts of storage dispatch and (non-)availabilities as promising fields of application that have not sufficiently been covered, yet. We end with deriving a new methodological pipeline for adequately and efficiently addressing the present and upcoming challenges in the assessment of security of electricity supply.