Knowledge graphs have emerged as a widely adopted medium for storing relational data, making methods for automatically reasoning with them highly desirable. In this paper, we present a novel approach for inducing a hierarchy of subject clusters, building upon our earlier work done in taxonomy induction. Our method first constructs a tag hierarchy before assigning subjects to clusters on this hierarchy. We quantitatively demonstrate our method's ability to induce a coherent cluster hierarchy on three real-world datasets.
We present a clustering- and demotion-based algorithm called Kmeans-FOLD to induce nonmonotonic logic programs from positive and negative examples. Our algorithm improves upon-and is inspired by-the FOLD algorithm. The FOLD algorithm itself is an improvement over the FOIL algorithm. Our algorithm generates a more concise logic program compared to the FOLD algorithm. Our algorithm uses the K-means based clustering method to cluster the input positive samples before applying the FOLD algorithm. Positive examples that are covered by the partially learned program in intermediate steps are not discarded as in the FOLD algorithm, rather they are demoted, i.e., their weights are reduced in subsequent iterations of the algorithm. Our experiments on the UCI dataset show that a combination of K-Means clustering and our demotion strategy produces significant improvement for datasets with more than one cluster of positive examples. The resulting induced program is also more concise and therefore easier to understand compared to the FOLD and ALEPH systems, two state of the art inductive logic programming (ILP) systems.
Pool-based active learning (AL) aims to optimize the annotation process (i.e., labeling) as the acquisition of annotations is often time-consuming and therefore expensive. For this purpose, an AL strategy queries annotations intelligently from annotators to train a high-performance classification model at a low annotation cost. Traditional AL strategies operate in an idealized framework. They assume a single, omniscient annotator who never gets tired and charges uniformly regardless of query difficulty. However, in real-world applications, we often face human annotators, e.g., crowd or in-house workers, who make annotation mistakes and can be reluctant to respond if tired or faced with complex queries. Recently, a wide range of novel AL strategies has been proposed to address these issues. They differ in at least one of the following three central aspects from traditional AL: (1) They explicitly consider (multiple) human annotators whose performances can be affected by various factors, such as missing expertise. (2) They generalize the interaction with human annotators by considering different query and annotation types, such as asking an annotator for feedback on an inferred classification rule. (3) They take more complex cost schemes regarding annotations and misclassifications into account. This survey provides an overview of these AL strategies and refers to them as real-world AL. Therefore, we introduce a general real-world AL strategy as part of a learning cycle and use its elements, e.g., the query and annotator selection algorithm, to categorize about 60 real-world AL strategies. Finally, we outline possible directions for future research in the field of AL.
A basic algorithmic task in automated video surveillance is to separate background and foreground objects. Camera tampering, noisy videos, low frame rate, etc., pose difficulties in solving the problem. A general approach which classifies the tampered frames, and performs subsequent analysis on the remaining frames after discarding the tampered ones, results in loss of information. We propose a robust singular value decomposition (SVD) approach based on the density power divergence to perform background separation robustly even in the presence of tampered frames. We also provide theoretical results and perform simulations to validate the superiority of the proposed method over the few existing robust SVD methods. Finally, we indicate several other use-cases of the proposed method to show its general applicability to a large range of problems.
Outcome labeling ambiguity and subjectivity are ubiquitous in real-world datasets. While practitioners commonly combine ambiguous outcome labels in an ad hoc way to improve the accuracy of multi-class classification, there lacks a principled approach to guide label combination by any optimality criterion. To address this problem, we propose the information-theoretic classification accuracy (ITCA), a criterion of outcome "information" conditional on outcome prediction, to guide practitioners on how to combine ambiguous outcome labels. ITCA indicates a balance in the trade-off between prediction accuracy (how well do predicted labels agree with actual labels) and prediction resolution (how many labels are predictable). To find the optimal label combination indicated by ITCA, we develop two search strategies: greedy search and breadth-first search. Notably, ITCA and the two search strategies are adaptive to all machine-learning classification algorithms. Coupled with a classification algorithm and a search strategy, ITCA has two uses: to improve prediction accuracy and to identify ambiguous labels. We first verify that ITCA achieves high accuracy with both search strategies in finding the correct label combinations on synthetic and real data. Then we demonstrate the effectiveness of ITCA in diverse applications including medical prognosis, cancer survival prediction, user demographics prediction, and cell type classification.
Up until the 1970's there were two main ways of clustering points in space. One of them, perhaps pioneered by Pearson , was to fit a (usually Gaussian) mixture to the data, and that being done, classify each data point -- as well as any other point available at a later date -- according to the most likely component in the mixture. The other one was based on a direct partitioning of the space, most notably by minimization of the average minimum squared distance to a center: the K-means problem, whose computational difficulty led to a number of famous algorithms [22, 31, 36, 37, 39] and likely played a role in motivating the development of hierarchical clustering [21, 25, 54, 63]. In the 1970's, two decidedly nonparametric approaches to clustering were proposed, both based on the topography given by the population density. Of course, in practice, the density is estimated, often by some form of kernel density estimation.
The widespread availability of cell phones has enabled non-profits to deliver critical health information to their beneficiaries in a timely manner. This paper describes our work to assist non-profits that employ automated messaging programs to deliver timely preventive care information to beneficiaries (new and expecting mothers) during pregnancy and after delivery. Unfortunately, a key challenge in such information delivery programs is that a significant fraction of beneficiaries drop out of the program. Yet, non-profits often have limited health-worker resources (time) to place crucial service calls for live interaction with beneficiaries to prevent such engagement drops. To assist non-profits in optimizing this limited resource, we developed a Restless Multi-Armed Bandits (RMABs) system. One key technical contribution in this system is a novel clustering method of offline historical data to infer unknown RMAB parameters. Our second major contribution is evaluation of our RMAB system in collaboration with an NGO, via a real-world service quality improvement study. The study compared strategies for optimizing service calls to 23003 participants over a period of 7 weeks to reduce engagement drops. We show that the RMAB group provides statistically significant improvement over other comparison groups, reducing ~ 30% engagement drops. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the utility of RMABs in real world public health settings. We are transitioning our RMAB system to the NGO for real-world use.
Building surrogate models is one common approach when we attempt to learn unknown black-box functions. Bayesian optimization provides a framework which allows us to build surrogate models based on sequential samples drawn from the function and find the optimum. Tuning algorithmic parameters to optimize the performance of large, complicated "black-box" application codes is a specific important application, which aims at finding the optima of black-box functions. Within the Bayesian optimization framework, the Gaussian process model produces smooth or continuous sample paths. However, the black-box function in the tuning problem is often non-smooth. This difficult tuning problem is worsened by the fact that we usually have limited sequential samples from the black-box function. Motivated by these issues encountered in tuning, we propose a novel additive Gaussian process model called clustered Gaussian process (cGP), where the additive components are induced by clustering. In the examples we studied, the performance can be improved by as much as 90% among repetitive experiments. By using this surrogate model, we want to capture the non-smoothness of the black-box function. In addition to an algorithm for constructing this model, we also apply the model to several artificial and real applications to evaluate it.
Many datasets take the form of a bipartite graph where two types of nodes are connected by relationships, like the movies watched by a user or the tags associated with a file. The partitioning of the bipartite graph could be used to fasten recommender systems, or reduce the information retrieval system's index size, by identifying groups of items with similar properties. This type of graph is often processed by algorithms using the Vector Space Model representation, where a binary vector represents an item with 0 and 1. The main problem with this representation is the dimension relatedness, like words' synonymity, which is not considered. This article proposes a co-clustering algorithm using items projection, allowing the measurement of features similarity. We evaluated our algorithm on a cluster retrieval task. Over various datasets, our algorithm produced well balanced clusters with coherent items in, leading to high retrieval scores on this task.
We study the matrix completion problem that leverages hierarchical similarity graphs as side information in the context of recommender systems. Under a hierarchical stochastic block model that well respects practically-relevant social graphs and a low-rank rating matrix model, we characterize the exact information-theoretic limit on the number of observed matrix entries (i.e., optimal sample complexity) by proving sharp upper and lower bounds on the sample complexity. In the achievability proof, we demonstrate that probability of error of the maximum likelihood estimator vanishes for sufficiently large number of users and items, if all sufficient conditions are satisfied. On the other hand, the converse (impossibility) proof is based on the genie-aided maximum likelihood estimator. Under each necessary condition, we present examples of a genie-aided estimator to prove that the probability of error does not vanish for sufficiently large number of users and items. One important consequence of this result is that exploiting the hierarchical structure of social graphs yields a substantial gain in sample complexity relative to the one that simply identifies different groups without resorting to the relational structure across them. More specifically, we analyze the optimal sample complexity and identify different regimes whose characteristics rely on quality metrics of side information of the hierarchical similarity graph. Finally, we present simulation results to corroborate our theoretical findings and show that the characterized information-theoretic limit can be asymptotically achieved. N recent years, personalized recommender systems have emerged in an extensive range of Web applications to predict the preferences of its users and provide them with new and relevant items based on the scarce data about the users and/or items . There are two major paradigms of recommender systems: (i) content-based filtering systems; (ii) collaborative filtering systems. Content-based filtering approach exploits a profile of users' preferences and/or properties of the items to carry out the recommendation task.