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A Survey of Methods for Automated Algorithm Configuration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Algorithm configuration (AC) is concerned with the automated search of the most suitable parameter configuration of a parametrized algorithm. There is currently a wide variety of AC problem variants and methods proposed in the literature. Existing reviews do not take into account all derivatives of the AC problem, nor do they offer a complete classification scheme. To this end, we introduce taxonomies to describe the AC problem and features of configuration methods, respectively. We review existing AC literature within the lens of our taxonomies, outline relevant design choices of configuration approaches, contrast methods and problem variants against each other, and describe the state of AC in industry. Finally, our review provides researchers and practitioners with a look at future research directions in the field of AC.


Modularity-Aware Graph Autoencoders for Joint Community Detection and Link Prediction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph autoencoders (GAE) and variational graph autoencoders (VGAE) emerged as powerful methods for link prediction. Their performances are less impressive on community detection problems where, according to recent and concurring experimental evaluations, they are often outperformed by simpler alternatives such as the Louvain method. It is currently still unclear to which extent one can improve community detection with GAE and VGAE, especially in the absence of node features. It is moreover uncertain whether one could do so while simultaneously preserving good performances on link prediction. In this paper, we show that jointly addressing these two tasks with high accuracy is possible. For this purpose, we introduce and theoretically study a community-preserving message passing scheme, doping our GAE and VGAE encoders by considering both the initial graph structure and modularity-based prior communities when computing embedding spaces. We also propose novel training and optimization strategies, including the introduction of a modularity-inspired regularizer complementing the existing reconstruction losses for joint link prediction and community detection. We demonstrate the empirical effectiveness of our approach, referred to as Modularity-Aware GAE and VGAE, through in-depth experimental validation on various real-world graphs.


Forecasting: theory and practice

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.


Robust Convergence in Federated Learning through Label-wise Clustering

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Non-IID dataset and heterogeneous environment of the local clients are regarded as a major issue in Federated Learning (FL), causing a downturn in the convergence without achieving satisfactory performance. In this paper, we propose a novel Label-wise clustering algorithm that guarantees the trainability among geographically dispersed heterogeneous local clients, by selecting only the local models trained with a dataset that approximates into uniformly distributed class labels, which is likely to obtain faster minimization of the loss and increment the accuracy among the FL network. Through conducting experiments on the suggested six common non-IID scenarios, we empirically show that the vanilla FL aggregation model is incapable of gaining robust convergence generating biased pre-trained local models and drifting the local weights to mislead the trainability in the worst case. Moreover, we quantitatively estimate the expected performance of the local models before training, which offers a global server to select the optimal clients, saving additional computational costs. Ultimately, in order to gain resolution of the non-convergence in such non-IID situations, we design clustering algorithms based on local input class labels, accommodating the diversity and assorting clients that could lead the overall system to attain the swift convergence as global training continues. Our paper shows that proposed Label-wise clustering demonstrates prompt and robust convergence compared to other FL algorithms when local training datasets are non-IID or coexist with IID through multiple experiments.


Graph-based Ensemble Machine Learning for Student Performance Prediction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Student performance prediction is a critical research problem to understand the students' needs, present proper learning opportunities/resources, and develop the teaching quality. However, traditional machine learning methods fail to produce stable and accurate prediction results. In this paper, we propose a graph-based ensemble machine learning method that aims to improve the stability of single machine learning methods via the consensus of multiple methods. To be specific, we leverage both supervised prediction methods and unsupervised clustering methods, build an iterative approach that propagates in a bipartite graph as well as converges to more stable and accurate prediction results. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method in predicting more accurate student performance. Specifically, our model outperforms the best traditional machine learning algorithms by up to 14.8% in prediction accuracy.


Top 5 Machine Learning Algorithms for Data Science and ML Interviews

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Hello guys, you may know that Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence have become more and more important in this increasingly digital world. They are now providing a competitive edge to businesses like NetFlix's Movie recommendations. If you have just started in this field and are looking for what to learn, then I will share 5 essential Machine learning algorithms you can learn as a beginner. These necessary algorithms form the basis of most common Machine learning projects. Knowing them well will help you understand the project and model quickly and change them as per your need.


Complete Machine Learning & Data Science with Python

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Machine learning is constantly being applied to new industries. Learn Machine Learning with Hands-On Examples What is Machine Learning? Machine Learning Terminology What are Classification vs Regression? Evaluating Performance-Classification Error Metrics Evaluating Performance-Regression Error Metrics Cross Validation and Bias Variance Trade-Off Use matplotlib and seaborn for data visualizations Machine Learning with SciKit Learn Linear Regression Algorithm Logistic Regresion Algorithm K Nearest Neighbors Algorithm Decision Trees And Random Forest Algorithm Support Vector Machine Algorithm Unsupervised Learning K Means Clustering Algorithm Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Recommender System Algorithm Python instructors on OAK Academy specialize in everything from software development to data analysis, and are known for their effective. Python is a general-purpose, object-oriented, high-level programming language. Python is a multi-paradigm language, which means that it supports many programming approaches. Along with procedural and functional programming styles Python is a widely used, general-purpose programming language, but it has some limitations. Because Python is an interpreted, dynamically typed language Python is a general programming language used widely across many industries and platforms. One common use of Python is scripting, which means automating tasks. Python is a popular language that is used across many industries and in many programming disciplines. DevOps engineers use Python to script website. Python has a simple syntax that makes it an excellent programming language for a beginner to learn. To learn Python on your own, you first must become familiar Machine learning describes systems that make predictions using a model trained on real-world data. Machine learning is being applied to virtually every field today. That includes medical diagnoses, facial recognition, weather forecasts, image processing.


Exploring Language Patterns in a Medical Licensure Exam Item Bank

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This study examines the use of natural language processing (NLP) models to evaluate whether language patterns used by item writers in a medical licensure exam might contain evidence of biased or stereotypical language. This type of bias in item language choices can be particularly impactful for items in a medical licensure assessment, as it could pose a threat to content validity and defensibility of test score validity evidence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt using machine learning (ML) and NLP to explore language bias on a large item bank. Using a prediction algorithm trained on clusters of similar item stems, we demonstrate that our approach can be used to review large item banks for potential biased language or stereotypical patient characteristics in clinical science vignettes. The findings may guide the development of methods to address stereotypical language patterns found in test items and enable an efficient updating of those items, if needed, to reflect contemporary norms, thereby improving the evidence to support the validity of the test scores.


Customer Segmentation With Clustering

#artificialintelligence

Let's say that you work with the sales and marketing team to reach your company's pre-set goals. While your company is doing well in terms of generating revenue and retaining customers, you can not help but think that it can do better. As things stand, the advertisements, promotions, and special offers are homogenous across all customers, which is a serious issue. Engaging with customers in a manner that they won't be receptive to is tantamount to wasting your advertising budget. After all, you don't want your company to spend its limited budget sending diaper coupons to college students or advertising gaming consoles to elderly women.


Machine Learning and Deep Learning A-Z: Hands-On Python

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Learn Machine Learning with Hands-On Examples What is Machine Learning? Machine Learning Terminology Evaluation Metrics for Python machine learning, Python Deep learning What are Classification vs Regression? Evaluating Performance-Classification Error Metrics Evaluating Performance-Regression Error Metrics Cross Validation and Bias Variance Trade-Off Use matplotlib and seaborn for data visualizations Machine Learning with SciKit Learn Linear Regression Algorithm Logistic Regresion Algorithm K Nearest Neighbors Algorithm Decision Trees And Random Forest Algorithm Support Vector Machine Algorithm Unsupervised Learning K Means Clustering Algorithm Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Recommender System Algorithm Python, python machine learning and deep learning Machine Learning, machine learning A-Z Deep Learning, Deep learning a-z Machine learning is constantly being applied to new industries and new problems. Whether you're a marketer, video game designer, or programmer Machine learning describes systems that make predictions using a model trained on real-world data. Machine learning is being applied to virtually every field today. That includes medical diagnoses, facial recognition, weather forecasts, image processing It's possible to use machine learning without coding, but building new systems generally requires code. What is the best language for machine learning? Python is the most used language in machine learning. Engineers writing machine learning systems often use Jupyter Notebooks and Python together. Machine learning is generally divided between supervised machine learning and unsupervised machine learning. Python instructors on Udemy specialize in everything from software development to data analysis, and are known for their effective, friendly instruction What are the limitations of Python? Python is a widely used, general-purpose programming language, but it has some limitations.