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AI-enabled Automation for Completeness Checking of Privacy Policies

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Technological advances in information sharing have raised concerns about data protection. Privacy policies contain privacy-related requirements about how the personal data of individuals will be handled by an organization or a software system (e.g., a web service or an app). In Europe, privacy policies are subject to compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). A prerequisite for GDPR compliance checking is to verify whether the content of a privacy policy is complete according to the provisions of GDPR. Incomplete privacy policies might result in large fines on violating organization as well as incomplete privacy-related software specifications. Manual completeness checking is both time-consuming and error-prone. In this paper, we propose AI-based automation for the completeness checking of privacy policies. Through systematic qualitative methods, we first build two artifacts to characterize the privacy-related provisions of GDPR, namely a conceptual model and a set of completeness criteria. Then, we develop an automated solution on top of these artifacts by leveraging a combination of natural language processing and supervised machine learning. Specifically, we identify the GDPR-relevant information content in privacy policies and subsequently check them against the completeness criteria. To evaluate our approach, we collected 234 real privacy policies from the fund industry. Over a set of 48 unseen privacy policies, our approach detected 300 of the total of 334 violations of some completeness criteria correctly, while producing 23 false positives. The approach thus has a precision of 92.9% and recall of 89.8%. Compared to a baseline that applies keyword search only, our approach results in an improvement of 24.5% in precision and 38% in recall.


Fair Normalizing Flows

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Fair representation learning is an attractive approach that promises fairness of downstream predictors by encoding sensitive data. Unfortunately, recent work has shown that strong adversarial predictors can still exhibit unfairness by recovering sensitive attributes from these representations. In this work, we present Fair Normalizing Flows (FNF), a new approach offering more rigorous fairness guarantees for learned representations. Specifically, we consider a practical setting where we can estimate the probability density for sensitive groups. The key idea is to model the encoder as a normalizing flow trained to minimize the statistical distance between the latent representations of different groups. The main advantage of FNF is that its exact likelihood computation allows us to obtain guarantees on the maximum unfairness of any potentially adversarial downstream predictor. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of FNF in enforcing various group fairness notions, as well as other attractive properties such as interpretability and transfer learning, on a variety of challenging real-world datasets.


Review of Low-Voltage Load Forecasting: Methods, Applications, and Recommendations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The increased digitalisation and monitoring of the energy system opens up numerous opportunities % and solutions which can help to decarbonise the energy system. Applications on low voltage (LV), localised networks, such as community energy markets and smart storage will facilitate decarbonisation, but they will require advanced control and management. Reliable forecasting will be a necessary component of many of these systems to anticipate key features and uncertainties. Despite this urgent need, there has not yet been an extensive investigation into the current state-of-the-art of low voltage level forecasts, other than at the smart meter level. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape, current approaches, core applications, challenges and recommendations. Another aim of this paper is to facilitate the continued improvement and advancement in this area. To this end, the paper also surveys some of the most relevant and promising trends. It establishes an open, community-driven list of the known LV level open datasets to encourage further research and development.


MTH-IDS: A Multi-Tiered Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for Internet of Vehicles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Modern vehicles, including connected vehicles and autonomous vehicles, nowadays involve many electronic control units connected through intra-vehicle networks to implement various functionalities and perform actions. Modern vehicles are also connected to external networks through vehicle-to-everything technologies, enabling their communications with other vehicles, infrastructures, and smart devices. However, the improving functionality and connectivity of modern vehicles also increase their vulnerabilities to cyber-attacks targeting both intra-vehicle and external networks due to the large attack surfaces. To secure vehicular networks, many researchers have focused on developing intrusion detection systems (IDSs) that capitalize on machine learning methods to detect malicious cyber-attacks. In this paper, the vulnerabilities of intra-vehicle and external networks are discussed, and a multi-tiered hybrid IDS that incorporates a signature-based IDS and an anomaly-based IDS is proposed to detect both known and unknown attacks on vehicular networks. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed system can detect various types of known attacks with 99.99% accuracy on the CAN-intrusion-dataset representing the intra-vehicle network data and 99.88% accuracy on the CICIDS2017 dataset illustrating the external vehicular network data. For the zero-day attack detection, the proposed system achieves high F1-scores of 0.963 and 0.800 on the above two datasets, respectively. The average processing time of each data packet on a vehicle-level machine is less than 0.6 ms, which shows the feasibility of implementing the proposed system in real-time vehicle systems. This emphasizes the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed IDS.


Negative Selection Algorithm Research and Applications in the last decade: A Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The Negative selection Algorithm (NSA) is one of the important methods in the field of Immunological Computation (or Artificial Immune Systems). Over the years, some progress was made which turns this algorithm (NSA) into an efficient approach to solve problems in different domain. This review takes into account these signs of progress during the last decade and categorizes those based on different characteristics and performances. Our study shows that NSA's evolution can be labeled in four ways highlighting the most notable NSA variations and their limitations in different application domains. We also present alternative approaches to NSA for comparison and analysis. It is evident that NSA performs better for nonlinear representation than most of the other methods, and it can outperform neural-based models in computation time. We summarize NSA's development and highlight challenges in NSA research in comparison with other similar models.


Randomized Algorithms for Scientific Computing (RASC)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Randomized algorithms have propelled advances in artificial intelligence and represent a foundational research area in advancing AI for Science. Future advancements in DOE Office of Science priority areas such as climate science, astrophysics, fusion, advanced materials, combustion, and quantum computing all require randomized algorithms for surmounting challenges of complexity, robustness, and scalability. This report summarizes the outcomes of that workshop, "Randomized Algorithms for Scientific Computing (RASC)," held virtually across four days in December 2020 and January 2021.


Adversarial Diffusion Attacks on Graph-based Traffic Prediction Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Real-time traffic prediction models play a pivotal role in smart mobility systems and have been widely used in route guidance, emerging mobility services, and advanced traffic management systems. With the availability of massive traffic data, neural network-based deep learning methods, especially the graph convolutional networks (GCN) have demonstrated outstanding performance in mining spatio-temporal information and achieving high prediction accuracy. Recent studies reveal the vulnerability of GCN under adversarial attacks, while there is a lack of studies to understand the vulnerability issues of the GCN-based traffic prediction models. Given this, this paper proposes a new task -- diffusion attack, to study the robustness of GCN-based traffic prediction models. The diffusion attack aims to select and attack a small set of nodes to degrade the performance of the entire prediction model. To conduct the diffusion attack, we propose a novel attack algorithm, which consists of two major components: 1) approximating the gradient of the black-box prediction model with Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation (SPSA); 2) adapting the knapsack greedy algorithm to select the attack nodes. The proposed algorithm is examined with three GCN-based traffic prediction models: St-Gcn, T-Gcn, and A3t-Gcn on two cities. The proposed algorithm demonstrates high efficiency in the adversarial attack tasks under various scenarios, and it can still generate adversarial samples under the drop regularization such as DropOut, DropNode, and DropEdge. The research outcomes could help to improve the robustness of the GCN-based traffic prediction models and better protect the smart mobility systems. Our code is available at https://github.com/LYZ98/Adversarial-Diffusion-Attacks-on-Graph-based-Traffic-Prediction-Models


Supervised Feature Selection Techniques in Network Intrusion Detection: a Critical Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine Learning (ML) techniques are becoming an invaluable support for network intrusion detection, especially in revealing anomalous flows, which often hide cyber-threats. Typically, ML algorithms are exploited to classify/recognize data traffic on the basis of statistical features such as inter-arrival times, packets length distribution, mean number of flows, etc. Dealing with the vast diversity and number of features that typically characterize data traffic is a hard problem. This results in the following issues: i) the presence of so many features leads to lengthy training processes (particularly when features are highly correlated), while prediction accuracy does not proportionally improve; ii) some of the features may introduce bias during the classification process, particularly those that have scarce relation with the data traffic to be classified. To this end, by reducing the feature space and retaining only the most significant features, Feature Selection (FS) becomes a crucial pre-processing step in network management and, specifically, for the purposes of network intrusion detection. In this review paper, we complement other surveys in multiple ways: i) evaluating more recent datasets (updated w.r.t. obsolete KDD 99) by means of a designed-from-scratch Python-based procedure; ii) providing a synopsis of most credited FS approaches in the field of intrusion detection, including Multi-Objective Evolutionary techniques; iii) assessing various experimental analyses such as feature correlation, time complexity, and performance. Our comparisons offer useful guidelines to network/security managers who are considering the incorporation of ML concepts into network intrusion detection, where trade-offs between performance and resource consumption are crucial.


Balancing Biases and Preserving Privacy on Balanced Faces in the Wild

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There are demographic biases in the SOTA CNN used for FR. Our BFW dataset serves as a proxy to measure bias across ethnicity and gender subgroups, allowing us to characterize FR performances per subgroup. We show performances are non-optimal when a single score threshold is used to determine whether sample pairs are genuine or imposter. Furthermore, actual performance ratings vary greatly from the reported across subgroups. Thus, claims of specific error rates only hold true for populations matching that of the validation data. We mitigate the imbalanced performances using a novel domain adaptation learning scheme on the facial encodings extracted using SOTA deep nets. Not only does this technique balance performance, but it also boosts the overall performance. A benefit of the proposed is to preserve identity information in facial features while removing demographic knowledge in the lower dimensional features. The removal of demographic knowledge prevents future potential biases from being injected into decision-making. Additionally, privacy concerns are satisfied by this removal. We explore why this works qualitatively with hard samples. We also show quantitatively that subgroup classifiers can no longer learn from the encodings mapped by the proposed.


A Hamiltonian Monte Carlo Model for Imputation and Augmentation of Healthcare Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Missing values exist in nearly all clinical studies because data for a variable or question are not collected or not available. Inadequate handling of missing values can lead to biased results and loss of statistical power in analysis. Existing models usually do not consider privacy concerns or do not utilise the inherent correlations across multiple features to impute the missing values. In healthcare applications, we are usually confronted with high dimensional and sometimes small sample size datasets that need more effective augmentation or imputation techniques. Besides, imputation and augmentation processes are traditionally conducted individually. However, imputing missing values and augmenting data can significantly improve generalisation and avoid bias in machine learning models. A Bayesian approach to impute missing values and creating augmented samples in high dimensional healthcare data is proposed in this work. We propose folded Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (F-HMC) with Bayesian inference as a more practical approach to process the cross-dimensional relations by applying a random walk and Hamiltonian dynamics to adapt posterior distribution and generate large-scale samples. The proposed method is applied to a cancer symptom assessment dataset and confirmed to enrich the quality of data in precision, accuracy, recall, F1 score, and propensity metric.