Entity linking (EL) is the process of linking entity mentions appearing in web text with their corresponding entities in a knowledge base. EL plays an important role in the fields of knowledge engineering and data mining, underlying a variety of downstream applications such as knowledge base population, content analysis, relation extraction, and question answering. In recent years, deep learning (DL), which has achieved tremendous success in various domains, has also been leveraged in EL methods to surpass traditional machine learning based methods and yield the state-of-the-art performance. In this survey, we present a comprehensive review and analysis of existing DL based EL methods. First of all, we propose a new taxonomy, which organizes existing DL based EL methods using three axes: embedding, feature, and algorithm. Then we systematically survey the representative EL methods along the three axes of the taxonomy. Later, we introduce ten commonly used EL data sets and give a quantitative performance analysis of DL based EL methods over these data sets. Finally, we discuss the remaining limitations of existing methods and highlight some promising future directions.
Learning from human feedback has shown to be a useful approach in acquiring robot reward functions. However, expert feedback is often assumed to be drawn from an underlying unimodal reward function. This assumption does not always hold including in settings where multiple experts provide data or when a single expert provides data for different tasks -- we thus go beyond learning a unimodal reward and focus on learning a multimodal reward function. We formulate the multimodal reward learning as a mixture learning problem and develop a novel ranking-based learning approach, where the experts are only required to rank a given set of trajectories. Furthermore, as access to interaction data is often expensive in robotics, we develop an active querying approach to accelerate the learning process. We conduct experiments and user studies using a multi-task variant of OpenAI's LunarLander and a real Fetch robot, where we collect data from multiple users with different preferences. The results suggest that our approach can efficiently learn multimodal reward functions, and improve data-efficiency over benchmark methods that we adapt to our learning problem.
Tracking a turbulent plume to locate its source is a complex control problem because it requires multi-sensory integration and must be robust to intermittent odors, changing wind direction, and variable plume statistics. This task is routinely performed by flying insects, often over long distances, in pursuit of food or mates. Several aspects of this remarkable behavior have been studied in detail in many experimental studies. Here, we take a complementary in silico approach, using artificial agents trained with reinforcement learning to develop an integrated understanding of the behaviors and neural computations that support plume tracking. Specifically, we use deep reinforcement learning (DRL) to train recurrent neural network (RNN) agents to locate the source of simulated turbulent plumes. Interestingly, the agents' emergent behaviors resemble those of flying insects, and the RNNs learn to represent task-relevant variables, such as head direction and time since last odor encounter. Our analyses suggest an intriguing experimentally testable hypothesis for tracking plumes in changing wind direction -- that agents follow local plume shape rather than the current wind direction. While reflexive short-memory behaviors are sufficient for tracking plumes in constant wind, longer timescales of memory are essential for tracking plumes that switch direction. At the level of neural dynamics, the RNNs' population activity is low-dimensional and organized into distinct dynamical structures, with some correspondence to behavioral modules. Our in silico approach provides key intuitions for turbulent plume tracking strategies and motivates future targeted experimental and theoretical developments.
There are 4 main types of Machine Learning Algorithm, the choice of the algorithm depends on the data type in the use case. It is an equation which describes a line, which represents relationship between input (x) and output (y) variables. By finding specific weightage for input variables called coefficients (b). Predictive modeling is primarily concerned when minimizing system errors or making the most accurate predictions possible at the expense of expansibility. It is a graphical representation of all possible solutions to a decision based on few conditions, it uses predictive models to achieve results, it is drawn upside down with its root at the top and it splits into branches based on a condition or internal node The end of the branch that doesn't not split, is the decision leaf.
This paper introduces Logical Credal Networks, an expressive probabilistic logic that generalizes many prior models that combine logic and probability. Given imprecise information represented by probability bounds and conditional probability bounds of logic formulas, this logic specifies a set of probability distributions over all interpretations. On the one hand, our approach allows propositional and first-order logic formulas with few restrictions, e.g., without requiring acyclicity. On the other hand, it has a Markov condition similar to Bayesian networks and Markov random fields that is critical in real-world applications. Having both these properties makes this logic unique, and we investigate its performance on maximum a posteriori inference tasks, including solving Mastermind games with uncertainty and detecting credit card fraud. The results show that the proposed method outperforms existing approaches, and its advantage lies in aggregating multiple sources of imprecise information.
Observing the outcomes of a sequence of measurements usually increases our knowledge about the state of a particular system we might be interested in. An informative measurement is the most efficient way of gaining this information, having the largest possible statistical dependence between the state being measured and the observed measurement outcome. Lindley first introduced the notion of the amount of information in an experiment, and suggested the following greedy rule for experimentation: perform that experiment for which the expected gain in information is the greatest, and continue experimentation until a preassigned amount of information has been attained [Lindley, 1955]. Greedy methods are still the most common approaches for finding informative measurements, being both simple to implement and efficient to compute. For example, in a weighing problem where an experimenter has a two-pan balance and is given a set of balls of equal weight except for a single odd ball that is heavier or lighter than the others (see Figure 1), the experimenter would like to find the odd ball in the fewest weighings. MacKay suggested that for useful information to be gained as quickly as possible, each stage of an optimal measurement sequence should have measurement outcomes as close as possible to equiprobable [MacKay, 2003].
Pool-based active learning (AL) aims to optimize the annotation process (i.e., labeling) as the acquisition of annotations is often time-consuming and therefore expensive. For this purpose, an AL strategy queries annotations intelligently from annotators to train a high-performance classification model at a low annotation cost. Traditional AL strategies operate in an idealized framework. They assume a single, omniscient annotator who never gets tired and charges uniformly regardless of query difficulty. However, in real-world applications, we often face human annotators, e.g., crowd or in-house workers, who make annotation mistakes and can be reluctant to respond if tired or faced with complex queries. Recently, a wide range of novel AL strategies has been proposed to address these issues. They differ in at least one of the following three central aspects from traditional AL: (1) They explicitly consider (multiple) human annotators whose performances can be affected by various factors, such as missing expertise. (2) They generalize the interaction with human annotators by considering different query and annotation types, such as asking an annotator for feedback on an inferred classification rule. (3) They take more complex cost schemes regarding annotations and misclassifications into account. This survey provides an overview of these AL strategies and refers to them as real-world AL. Therefore, we introduce a general real-world AL strategy as part of a learning cycle and use its elements, e.g., the query and annotator selection algorithm, to categorize about 60 real-world AL strategies. Finally, we outline possible directions for future research in the field of AL.
Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular over the last few decades as a tool for reasoning under uncertainty in fields as diverse as medicine, biology, epidemiology, economics and the social sciences. This is especially true in real-world areas where we seek to answer complex questions based on hypothetical evidence to determine actions for intervention. However, determining the graphical structure of a BN remains a major challenge, especially when modelling a problem under causal assumptions. Solutions to this problem include the automated discovery of BN graphs from data, constructing them based on expert knowledge, or a combination of the two. This paper provides a comprehensive review of combinatoric algorithms proposed for learning BN structure from data, describing 61 algorithms including prototypical, well-established and state-of-the-art approaches. The basic approach of each algorithm is described in consistent terms, and the similarities and differences between them highlighted. Methods of evaluating algorithms and their comparative performance are discussed including the consistency of claims made in the literature. Approaches for dealing with data noise in real-world datasets and incorporating expert knowledge into the learning process are also covered.