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Explainable AI: Language Models

#artificialintelligence

Just like a coin, explainability in AI has two faces -- one it shows to the developers (who actually build the models) and the other to the users (the end customers). The former face (IE i.e. intrinsic explainability) is a technical indicator to the builder that explains the working of the model. Whereas the latter (EE i.e. extrinsic explainability) is proof to the customers about the model's predictions. While IE is required for any reasonable model improvement, we need EE for factual confirmation. A simple layman who ends up using the model's prediction needs to know why is the model suggesting something.


Human Interpretation of Saliency-based Explanation Over Text

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

While a lot of research in explainable AI focuses on producing effective explanations, less work is devoted to the question of how people understand and interpret the explanation. In this work, we focus on this question through a study of saliency-based explanations over textual data. Feature-attribution explanations of text models aim to communicate which parts of the input text were more influential than others towards the model decision. Many current explanation methods, such as gradient-based or Shapley value-based methods, provide measures of importance which are well-understood mathematically. But how does a person receiving the explanation (the explainee) comprehend it? And does their understanding match what the explanation attempted to communicate? We empirically investigate the effect of various factors of the input, the feature-attribution explanation, and visualization procedure, on laypeople's interpretation of the explanation. We query crowdworkers for their interpretation on tasks in English and German, and fit a GAMM model to their responses considering the factors of interest. We find that people often mis-interpret the explanations: superficial and unrelated factors, such as word length, influence the explainees' importance assignment despite the explanation communicating importance directly. We then show that some of this distortion can be attenuated: we propose a method to adjust saliencies based on model estimates of over- and under-perception, and explore bar charts as an alternative to heatmap saliency visualization. We find that both approaches can attenuate the distorting effect of specific factors, leading to better-calibrated understanding of the explanation.


An Explainable Artificial Intelligence Framework for Quality-Aware IoE Service Delivery

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

One of the core envisions of the sixth-generation (6G) wireless networks is to accumulate artificial intelligence (AI) for autonomous controlling of the Internet of Everything (IoE). Particularly, the quality of IoE services delivery must be maintained by analyzing contextual metrics of IoE such as people, data, process, and things. However, the challenges incorporate when the AI model conceives a lake of interpretation and intuition to the network service provider. Therefore, this paper provides an explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) framework for quality-aware IoE service delivery that enables both intelligence and interpretation. First, a problem of quality-aware IoE service delivery is formulated by taking into account network dynamics and contextual metrics of IoE, where the objective is to maximize the channel quality index (CQI) of each IoE service user. Second, a regression problem is devised to solve the formulated problem, where explainable coefficients of the contextual matrices are estimated by Shapley value interpretation. Third, the XAI-enabled quality-aware IoE service delivery algorithm is implemented by employing ensemble-based regression models for ensuring the interpretation of contextual relationships among the matrices to reconfigure network parameters. Finally, the experiment results show that the uplink improvement rate becomes 42.43% and 16.32% for the AdaBoost and Extra Trees, respectively, while the downlink improvement rate reaches up to 28.57% and 14.29%. However, the AdaBoost-based approach cannot maintain the CQI of IoE service users. Therefore, the proposed Extra Trees-based regression model shows significant performance gain for mitigating the trade-off between accuracy and interpretability than other baselines.


Towards Explainable Artificial Intelligence in Banking and Financial Services

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) enables machines to learn from human experience, adjust to new inputs, and perform human-like tasks. AI is progressing rapidly and is transforming the way businesses operate, from process automation to cognitive augmentation of tasks and intelligent process/data analytics. However, the main challenge for human users would be to understand and appropriately trust the result of AI algorithms and methods. In this paper, to address this challenge, we study and analyze the recent work done in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) methods and tools. We introduce a novel XAI process, which facilitates producing explainable models while maintaining a high level of learning performance. We present an interactive evidence-based approach to assist human users in comprehending and trusting the results and output created by AI-enabled algorithms. We adopt a typical scenario in the Banking domain for analyzing customer transactions. We develop a digital dashboard to facilitate interacting with the algorithm results and discuss how the proposed XAI method can significantly improve the confidence of data scientists in understanding the result of AI-enabled algorithms.


Explainable AI for B5G/6G: Technical Aspects, Use Cases, and Research Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

When 5G began its commercialisation journey around 2020, the discussion on the vision of 6G also surfaced. Researchers expect 6G to have higher bandwidth, coverage, reliability, energy efficiency, lower latency, and, more importantly, an integrated "human-centric" network system powered by artificial intelligence (AI). Such a 6G network will lead to an excessive number of automated decisions made every second. These decisions can range widely, from network resource allocation to collision avoidance for self-driving cars. However, the risk of losing control over decision-making may increase due to high-speed data-intensive AI decision-making beyond designers and users' comprehension. The promising explainable AI (XAI) methods can mitigate such risks by enhancing the transparency of the black box AI decision-making process. This survey paper highlights the need for XAI towards the upcoming 6G age in every aspect, including 6G technologies (e.g., intelligent radio, zero-touch network management) and 6G use cases (e.g., industry 5.0). Moreover, we summarised the lessons learned from the recent attempts and outlined important research challenges in applying XAI for building 6G systems. This research aligns with goals 9, 11, 16, and 17 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDG), promoting innovation and building infrastructure, sustainable and inclusive human settlement, advancing justice and strong institutions, and fostering partnership at the global level.


Trustworthy AI: From Principles to Practices

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Fast developing artificial intelligence (AI) technology has enabled various applied systems deployed in the real world, impacting people's everyday lives. However, many current AI systems were found vulnerable to imperceptible attacks, biased against underrepresented groups, lacking in user privacy protection, etc., which not only degrades user experience but erodes the society's trust in all AI systems. In this review, we strive to provide AI practitioners a comprehensive guide towards building trustworthy AI systems. We first introduce the theoretical framework of important aspects of AI trustworthiness, including robustness, generalization, explainability, transparency, reproducibility, fairness, privacy preservation, alignment with human values, and accountability. We then survey leading approaches in these aspects in the industry. To unify the current fragmented approaches towards trustworthy AI, we propose a systematic approach that considers the entire lifecycle of AI systems, ranging from data acquisition to model development, to development and deployment, finally to continuous monitoring and governance. In this framework, we offer concrete action items to practitioners and societal stakeholders (e.g., researchers and regulators) to improve AI trustworthiness. Finally, we identify key opportunities and challenges in the future development of trustworthy AI systems, where we identify the need for paradigm shift towards comprehensive trustworthy AI systems.


Explainable AI May Surrender Confidential Data More Easily

#artificialintelligence

Researchers from the National University of Singapore have concluded that the more explainable AI becomes, the easier it will become to circumvent vital privacy features in machine learning systems. They also found that even when a model is not explainable, it's possible to use explanations of similar models to'decode' sensitive data in the non-explainable model. The research, titled Exploiting Explanations for Model Inversion Attacks, highlights the risks of using the'accidental' opacity of the way neural networks function as if this was a by-design security feature – not least because a wave of new global initiatives, including the European Union's draft AI regulations, are characterizing explainable AI (XAI) as a prerequisite for the eventual normalization of machine learning in society. In the research, an actual identity is successfully reconstructed from supposedly anonymous data relating to facial expressions, through the exploitation of multiple explanations of the machine learning system. 'Explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) provides more information to help users to understand model decisions, yet this additional knowledge exposes additional risks for privacy attacks.


Explainable AI: current status and future directions

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is an emerging area of research in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). XAI can explain how AI obtained a particular solution (e.g., classification or object detection) and can also answer other "wh" questions. This explainability is not possible in traditional AI. Explainability is essential for critical applications, such as defense, health care, law and order, and autonomous driving vehicles, etc, where the know-how is required for trust and transparency. A number of XAI techniques so far have been purposed for such applications. This paper provides an overview of these techniques from a multimedia (i.e., text, image, audio, and video) point of view. The advantages and shortcomings of these techniques have been discussed, and pointers to some future directions have also been provided.


Explainable AI (XAI) for PHM of Industrial Asset: A State-of-The-Art, PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A state-of-the-art systematic review on XAI applied to Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) of industrial asset is presented. The work attempts to provide an overview of the general trend of XAI in PHM, answers the question of accuracy versus explainability, investigates the extent of human role, explainability evaluation and uncertainty management in PHM XAI. Research articles linked to PHM XAI, in English language, from 2015 to 2021 are selected from IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, ACM Digital Library and Scopus databases using PRISMA guidelines. Data was extracted from 35 selected articles and examined using MS. Excel. Several findings were synthesized. Firstly, while the discipline is still young, the analysis indicates the growing acceptance of XAI in PHM domain. Secondly, XAI functions as a double edge sword, where it is assimilated as a tool to execute PHM tasks as well as a mean of explanation, in particular in diagnostic and anomaly detection. There is thus a need for XAI in PHM. Thirdly, the review shows that PHM XAI papers produce either good or excellent results in general, suggesting that PHM performance is unaffected by XAI. Fourthly, human role, explainability metrics and uncertainty management are areas requiring further attention by the PHM community. Adequate explainability metrics to cater for PHM need are urgently needed. Finally, most case study featured on the accepted articles are based on real, indicating that available AI and XAI approaches are equipped to solve complex real-world challenges, increasing the confidence of AI model adoption in the industry. This work is funded by the Universiti Teknologi Petronas Foundation.


Elystar redefines Public Securities Investment with explainable Artificial Intelligence - Founder, Dr Satya Gautam Vadlamudi – ThePrint

#artificialintelligence

Mumbai (Maharashtra) [India], May 7 (ANI/NewsVoir): Since the dawn of the 2000s, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been making waves through its penetration into various sectors. While AI helps increase efficiency and speed in a system, the lack of feedback when faced with errors has been a glaring concern. Recently developed Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) technology tackles this issue by analyzing data to provide users with explanations for given issues and activities. Utilizing this technology to create investment strategies, Elystar aims to increase net returns by reducing machine/AI-made errors and thereby successfully leveraging the superior insights provided by AI. "Artificial Intelligence in finance is a relatively new concept that is still being explored and experimented upon. While few of the firms experimenting are sparingly using it for short-term trading, we have spent the past 15 months developing models to use it for long-term investments. One simple way to look at this concept is to compare it with Microsoft Excel. While Excel is used in different fields and by different people, it is used in various ways and forms. Similarly, AI has a number of variations in which it can be utilized, so no two approaches may be completely the same. AI not only helps us scale and analyze data rapidly, but the integration of Explainable AI allows us to understand and eliminate unwarranted biases to create a sound investment strategy," said Dr Satya Gautam Vadlamudi, Founder and CEO of Elystar.