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PhD Studies in Informatics, Computer Science - Norway

#artificialintelligence

All employees are expected to contribute to excellence through high quality research and teaching. The working environment for this position will be at the Machine Learning and the Algorithms research groups. The person appointed in this position will develop new strategies for discovering rules encoded in neural network models and represent them as an ontology formulated in description logic or a related formalism in knowledge representation. The application and appendices with certified translations into English or a Scandinavian language must be uploaded at Jobbnorge by 28.10.2021. Digitization of businesses, industry, public administration, and education makes informatics play an increasingly important role in the development of the society.


Subgoal Search For Complex Reasoning Tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Humans excel in solving complex reasoning tasks through a mental process of moving from one idea to a related one. Inspired by this, we propose Subgoal Search (kSubS) method. Its key component is a learned subgoal generator that produces a diversity of subgoals that are both achievable and closer to the solution. Using subgoals reduces the search space and induces a high-level search graph suitable for efficient planning. In this paper, we implement kSubS using a transformer-based subgoal module coupled with the classical best-first search framework. We show that a simple approach of generating $k$-th step ahead subgoals is surprisingly efficient on three challenging domains: two popular puzzle games, Sokoban and the Rubik's Cube, and an inequality proving benchmark INT. kSubS achieves strong results including state-of-the-art on INT within a modest computational budget.



Quantum adaptive agents with efficient long-term memories

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Central to the success of adaptive systems is their ability to interpret signals from their environment and respond accordingly -- they act as agents interacting with their surroundings. Such agents typically perform better when able to execute increasingly complex strategies. This comes with a cost: the more information the agent must recall from its past experiences, the more memory it will need. Here we investigate the power of agents capable of quantum information processing. We uncover the most general form a quantum agent need adopt to maximise memory compression advantages, and provide a systematic means of encoding their memory states. We show these encodings can exhibit extremely favourable scaling advantages relative to memory-minimal classical agents when information must be retained about events increasingly far into the past.


Towards Personalized and Human-in-the-Loop Document Summarization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The ubiquitous availability of computing devices and the widespread use of the internet have generated a large amount of data continuously. Therefore, the amount of available information on any given topic is far beyond humans' processing capacity to properly process, causing what is known as information overload. To efficiently cope with large amounts of information and generate content with significant value to users, we require identifying, merging and summarising information. Data summaries can help gather related information and collect it into a shorter format that enables answering complicated questions, gaining new insight and discovering conceptual boundaries. This thesis focuses on three main challenges to alleviate information overload using novel summarisation techniques. It further intends to facilitate the analysis of documents to support personalised information extraction. This thesis separates the research issues into four areas, covering (i) feature engineering in document summarisation, (ii) traditional static and inflexible summaries, (iii) traditional generic summarisation approaches, and (iv) the need for reference summaries. We propose novel approaches to tackle these challenges, by: i)enabling automatic intelligent feature engineering, ii) enabling flexible and interactive summarisation, iii) utilising intelligent and personalised summarisation approaches. The experimental results prove the efficiency of the proposed approaches compared to other state-of-the-art models. We further propose solutions to the information overload problem in different domains through summarisation, covering network traffic data, health data and business process data.


Pinterest launches hair pattern search with BIPOC users in mind

Engadget

Pinterest has launched a new search feature that could make it easier for Black, Brown, Indigenous, Latinx and other POC users to find hair inspiration that would suit their hair types. The visual discovery website has introduced hair pattern search, it said, with BIPOC users in mind. This new feature uses computer vision-powered object detection to enable users to refine their searches by six different hair patterns: protective, coily, curly, wavy, straight and shaved/bald. Now, after users search for broader terms like "summer hairstyles," "glam hair" or "short hair," they'll find new hair pattern buttons that will narrow down the results. The feature is now live in the US, UK, Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand on desktop, as well as on iOS and Android. It will roll out to more locations over the coming months.


Thirty years of Epistemic Specifications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The language of epistemic specifications and epistemic logic programs extends disjunctive logic programs under the stable model semantics with modal constructs called subjective literals. Using subjective literals, it is possible to check whether a regular literal is true in every or some stable models of the program, those models, in this context also called \emph{belief sets}, being collected in a set called world view. This allows for representing, within the language, whether some proposition should be understood accordingly to the open or the closed world assumption. Several attempts for capturing the intuitions underlying the language by means of a formal semantics were given, resulting in a multitude of proposals that makes it difficult to understand the current state of the art. In this paper, we provide an overview of the inception of the field and the knowledge representation and reasoning tasks it is suitable for. We also provide a detailed analysis of properties of proposed semantics, and an outlook of challenges to be tackled by future research in the area. Under consideration in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP)


Analyzing hierarchical multi-view MRI data with StaPLR: An application to Alzheimer's disease classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Multi-view data refers to a setting where features are divided into feature sets, for example because they correspond to different sources. Stacked penalized logistic regression (StaPLR) is a recently introduced method that can be used for classification and automatically selecting the views that are most important for prediction. We show how this method can easily be extended to a setting where the data has a hierarchical multi-view structure. We apply StaPLR to Alzheimer's disease classification where different MRI measures have been calculated from three scan types: structural MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, and resting-state fMRI. StaPLR can identify which scan types and which MRI measures are most important for classification, and it outperforms elastic net regression in classification performance.


Intelligence as information processing: brains, swarms, and computers

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is no agreed definition of intelligence, so it is problematic to simply ask whether brains, swarms, computers, or other systems are intelligent or not. To compare the potential intelligence exhibited by different cognitive systems, I use the common approach used by artificial intelligence and artificial life: Instead of studying the substrate of systems, let us focus on their organization. This organization can be measured with information. Thus, I apply an informationist epistemology to describe cognitive systems, including brains and computers. This allows me to frame the usefulness and limitations of the brain-computer analogy in different contexts. I also use this perspective to discuss the evolution and ecology of intelligence.


I-DLV-sr: A Stream Reasoning System based on I-DLV

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce a novel logic-based system for reasoning over data streams, which relies on a framework enabling a tight, fine-tuned interaction between Apache Flink and the I^2-DLV system. The architecture allows to take advantage from both the powerful distributed stream processing capabilities of Flink and the incremental reasoning capabilities of I^2-DLV based on overgrounding techniques. Besides the system architecture, we illustrate the supported input language and its modeling capabilities, and discuss the results of an experimental activity aimed at assessing the viability of the approach. This paper is under consideration in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP).