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Demand Forecasting for Platelet Usage: from Univariate Time Series to Multivariate Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Platelet products are both expensive and have very short shelf lives. As usage rates for platelets are highly variable, the effective management of platelet demand and supply is very important yet challenging. The primary goal of this paper is to present an efficient forecasting model for platelet demand at Canadian Blood Services (CBS). To accomplish this goal, four different demand forecasting methods, ARIMA (Auto Regressive Moving Average), Prophet, lasso regression (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) and LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) networks are utilized and evaluated. We use a large clinical dataset for a centralized blood distribution centre for four hospitals in Hamilton, Ontario, spanning from 2010 to 2018 and consisting of daily platelet transfusions along with information such as the product specifications, the recipients' characteristics, and the recipients' laboratory test results. This study is the first to utilize different methods from statistical time series models to data-driven regression and a machine learning technique for platelet transfusion using clinical predictors and with different amounts of data. We find that the multivariate approaches have the highest accuracy in general, however, if sufficient data are available, a simpler time series approach such as ARIMA appears to be sufficient. We also comment on the approach to choose clinical indicators (inputs) for the multivariate models.


Reinforced Deep Markov Models With Applications in Automatic Trading

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Inspired by the developments in deep generative models, we propose a model-based RL approach, coined Reinforced Deep Markov Model (RDMM), designed to integrate desirable properties of a reinforcement learning algorithm acting as an automatic trading system. The network architecture allows for the possibility that market dynamics are partially visible and are potentially modified by the agent's actions. The RDMM filters incomplete and noisy data, to create better-behaved input data for RL planning. The policy search optimisation also properly accounts for state uncertainty. Due to the complexity of the RKDF model architecture, we performed ablation studies to understand the contributions of individual components of the approach better. To test the financial performance of the RDMM we implement policies using variants of Q-Learning, DynaQ-ARIMA and DynaQ-LSTM algorithms. The experiments show that the RDMM is data-efficient and provides financial gains compared to the benchmarks in the optimal execution problem. The performance improvement becomes more pronounced when price dynamics are more complex, and this has been demonstrated using real data sets from the limit order book of Facebook, Intel, Vodafone and Microsoft.


Comparison between ARIMA and Deep Learning Models for Temperature Forecasting

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

II. RELATED WORK Weather forecasting is essential for us to know unforeseeable information that will aid us when carrying daily tasks. For According to a study conducted by Mark Hallstrom, Dylan example farmers could use this futuristic information to Liu and Christopher Vo to exert machine learning to predict cultivate crops on time. Further, Air lines could schedule weather [2]. The illustrated method in this study uses data flights safely and accurately. Other than that, these predictions collected from Weather Underground. The collected data set could use to notify people when imminent dangers such as includes minimum temperature, maximum temperature and tsunamis, hurricanes are near. This information helps us to mean pressure of the atmosphere, mean humidity and daily make important daily decisions. Weather forecasting is a weather condition during the years of 2011 - 2015 in Stanford.


Comparison of ARIMA, ETS, NNAR and hybrid models to forecast the second wave of COVID-19 hospitalizations in Italy

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a severe ongoing novel pandemic that has emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. As of October 13, the outbreak has spread rapidly across the world, affecting over 38 million people, and causing over 1 million deaths. In this article, I analysed several time series forecasting methods to predict the spread of COVID-19 second wave in Italy, over the period after October 13, 2020. I used an autoregressive model (ARIMA), an exponential smoothing state space model (ETS), a neural network autoregression model (NNAR), and the following hybrid combinations of them: ARIMA-ETS, ARIMA-NNAR, ETS-NNAR, and ARIMA-ETS-NNAR. About the data, I forecasted the number of patients hospitalized with mild symptoms, and in intensive care units (ICU). The data refer to the period February 21, 2020-October 13, 2020 and are extracted from the website of the Italian Ministry of Health (www.salute.gov.it). The results show that i) the hybrid models, except for ARIMA-ETS, are better at capturing the linear and non-linear epidemic patterns, by outperforming the respective single models; and ii) the number of COVID-19-related hospitalized with mild symptoms and in ICU will rapidly increase in the next weeks, by reaching the peak in about 50-60 days, i.e. in mid-December 2020, at least. To tackle the upcoming COVID-19 second wave, on one hand, it is necessary to hire healthcare workers and implement sufficient hospital facilities, protective equipment, and ordinary and intensive care beds; and on the other hand, it may be useful to enhance social distancing by improving public transport and adopting the double-shifts schooling system, for example.


Asset Price Forecasting using Recurrent Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This thesis serves three primary purposes, first of which is to forecast two stocks, i.e. Goldman Sachs (GS) and General Electric (GE). In order to forecast stock prices, we used a long short-term memory (LSTM) model in which we inputted the prices of two other stocks that lie in rather close correlation with GS. Other models such as ARIMA were used as benchmark. Empirical results manifest the practical challenges when using LSTM for forecasting stocks. One of the main upheavals was a recurring lag which we called "forecasting lag". The second purpose is to develop a more general and objective perspective on the task of time series forecasting so that it could be applied to assist in an arbitrary that of forecasting by ANNs. Thus, attempts are made for distinguishing previous works by certain criteria (introduced by a review paper written by Ahmed Tealab) so as to summarise those including effective information. The summarised information is then unified and expressed through a common terminology that can be applied to different steps of a time series forecasting task. The last but not least purpose of this thesis is to elaborate on a mathematical framework on which ANNs are based. We are going to use the framework introduced in the book "Neural Networks in Mathematical Framework" by Anthony L. Caterini in which the structure of a generic neural network is introduced and the gradient descent algorithm (which incorporates backpropagation) is introduced in terms of their described framework. In the end, we use this framework for a specific architecture, which is recurrent neural networks on which we concentrated and our implementations are based. The book proves its theorems mostly for classification case. Instead, we proved theorems for regression case, which is the case of our problem.


A Strong Baseline for Weekly Time Series Forecasting

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Many businesses and industries require accurate forecasts for weekly time series nowadays. The forecasting literature however does not currently provide easy-to-use, automatic, reproducible and accurate approaches dedicated to this task. We propose a forecasting method that can be used as a strong baseline in this domain, leveraging state-of-the-art forecasting techniques, forecast combination, and global modelling. Our approach uses four base forecasting models specifically suitable for forecasting weekly data: a global Recurrent Neural Network model, Theta, Trigonometric Box-Cox ARMA Trend Seasonal (TBATS), and Dynamic Harmonic Regression ARIMA (DHR-ARIMA). Those are then optimally combined using a lasso regression stacking approach. We evaluate the performance of our method against a set of state-of-the-art weekly forecasting models on six datasets. Across four evaluation metrics, we show that our method consistently outperforms the benchmark methods by a considerable margin with statistical significance. In particular, our model can produce the most accurate forecasts, in terms of mean sMAPE, for the M4 weekly dataset.


Anomaly and Fraud Detection in Credit Card Transactions Using the ARIMA Model

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper addresses the problem of unsupervised approach of credit card fraud detection in unbalanced dataset using the ARIMA model. The ARIMA model is fitted on the regular spending behaviour of the customer and is used to detect fraud if some deviations or discrepancies appear. Our model is applied to credit card datasets and is compared to 4 anomaly detection approaches such as K-Means, Box-Plot, Local Outlier Factor and Isolation Forest. The results show that the ARIMA model presents a better detecting power than the benchmark models.


ATM Cash demand forecasting in an Indian Bank with chaos and deep learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper proposes to model chaos in the ATM cash withdrawal time series of a big Indian bank and forecast the withdrawals using deep learning methods. It also considers the importance of day-of-the-week and includes it as a dummy exogenous variable. We first modelled the chaos present in the withdrawal time series by reconstructing the state space of each series using the lag, and embedding dimension found using an auto-correlation function and Cao's method. This process converts the uni-variate time series into multi variate time series. The "day-of-the-week" is converted into seven features with the help of one-hot encoding. Then these seven features are augmented to the multivariate time series. For forecasting the future cash withdrawals, using algorithms namely ARIMA, random forest (RF), support vector regressor (SVR), multi-layer perceptron (MLP), group method of data handling (GMDH), general regression neural network (GRNN), long short term memory neural network and 1-dimensional convolutional neural network. We considered a daily cash withdrawals data set from an Indian commercial bank. After modelling chaos and adding exogenous features to the data set, we observed improvements in the forecasting for all models. Even though the random forest (RF) yielded better Symmetric Mean Absolute Percentage Error (SMAPE) value, deep learning algorithms, namely LSTM and 1D CNN, showed similar performance compared to RF, based on t-test.


Prediction of Traffic Flow via Connected Vehicles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose a Short-term Traffic flow Prediction (STP) framework so that transportation authorities take early actions to control flow and prevent congestion. We anticipate flow at future time frames on a target road segment based on historical flow data and innovative features such as real time feeds and trajectory data provided by Connected Vehicles (CV) technology. To cope with the fact that existing approaches do not adapt to variation in traffic, we show how this novel approach allows advanced modelling by integrating into the forecasting of flow, the impact of the various events that CV realistically encountered on segments along their trajectory. We solve the STP problem with a Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in a multitask learning setting augmented by input from CV. Results show that our approach, namely MTL-CV, with an average Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of 0.052, outperforms state-of-the-art ARIMA time series (RMSE of 0.255) and baseline classifiers (RMSE of 0.122). Compared to single task learning with Artificial Neural Network (ANN), ANN had a lower performance, 0.113 for RMSE, than MTL-CV. MTL-CV learned historical similarities between segments, in contrast to using direct historical trends in the measure, because trends may not exist in the measure but do in the similarities.


Improving the Decision-Making Process of Self-Adaptive Systems by Accounting for Tactic Volatility

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

When self-adaptive systems encounter changes within their surrounding environments, they enact tactics to perform necessary adaptations. For example, a self-adaptive cloud-based system may have a tactic that initiates additional computing resources when response time thresholds are surpassed, or there may be a tactic to activate a specific security measure when an intrusion is detected. In real-world environments, these tactics frequently experience tactic volatility which is variable behavior during the execution of the tactic. Unfortunately, current self-adaptive approaches do not account for tactic volatility in their decision-making processes, and merely assume that tactics do not experience volatility. This limitation creates uncertainty in the decision-making process and may adversely impact the system's ability to effectively and efficiently adapt. Additionally, many processes do not properly account for volatility that may effect the system's Service Level Agreement (SLA). This can limit the system's ability to act proactively, especially when utilizing tactics that contain latency. To address the challenge of sufficiently accounting for tactic volatility, we propose a Tactic Volatility Aware (TVA) solution. Using Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA), TVA enables self-adaptive systems to accurately estimate the cost and time required to execute tactics. TVA also utilizes Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) for time series forecasting, allowing the system to proactively maintain specifications.