Jakob Foerster an accredited Machine Learning Research Scientist who has been at the forefront of research on Multi-Agent Learning speaks with interviewer Kegan Strawn. Dr. Foerster explains why incorporating uncertainty into multi-agent interactions is essential to creating robust algorithms that can operate not only in games but in real-world applications. Jakob Foerster Jakob Foerster is an Associate Professor at the University of Oxford. His papers have gained prestigious awards at top machine learning conferences (ICML, AAAI) and have helped push deep multi-agent reinforcement learning to the forefront of AI research. Jakob previously worked at Facebook AI Research and received his Ph.D. from the University of Oxford under the supervision of Shimon Whiteson.
Rafner, Janet, Gajdacz, Miroslav, Kragh, Gitte, Hjorth, Arthur, Gander, Anna, Palfi, Blanka, Berditchevskaia, Aleks, Grey, François, Gal, Kobi, Segal, Avi, Walmsley, Mike, Miller, Josh Aaron, Dellerman, Dominik, Haklay, Muki, Michelucci, Pietro, Sherson, Jacob
Artificial Intelligence (AI) can augment and sometimes even replace human cognition. Inspired by efforts to value human agency alongside productivity, we discuss the benefits of solving Citizen Science (CS) tasks with Hybrid Intelligence (HI), a synergetic mixture of human and artificial intelligence. Currently there is no clear framework or methodology on how to create such an effective mixture. Due to the unique participant-centered set of values and the abundance of tasks drawing upon both human common sense and complex 21st century skills, we believe that the field of CS offers an invaluable testbed for the development of HI and human-centered AI of the 21st century, while benefiting CS as well. In order to investigate this potential, we first relate CS to adjacent computational disciplines. Then, we demonstrate that CS projects can be grouped according to their potential for HI-enhancement by examining two key dimensions: the level of digitization and the amount of knowledge or experience required for participation. Finally, we propose a framework for types of human-AI interaction in CS based on established criteria of HI. This "HI lens" provides the CS community with an overview of several ways to utilize the combination of AI and human intelligence in their projects. It also allows the AI community to gain ideas on how developing AI in CS projects can further their own field.
Hayes, Conor F., Rădulescu, Roxana, Bargiacchi, Eugenio, Källström, Johan, Macfarlane, Matthew, Reymond, Mathieu, Verstraeten, Timothy, Zintgraf, Luisa M., Dazeley, Richard, Heintz, Fredrik, Howley, Enda, Irissappane, Athirai A., Mannion, Patrick, Nowé, Ann, Ramos, Gabriel, Restelli, Marcello, Vamplew, Peter, Roijers, Diederik M.
Real-world decision-making tasks are generally complex, requiring trade-offs between multiple, often conflicting, objectives. Despite this, the majority of research in reinforcement learning and decision-theoretic planning either assumes only a single objective, or that multiple objectives can be adequately handled via a simple linear combination. Such approaches may oversimplify the underlying problem and hence produce suboptimal results. This paper serves as a guide to the application of multi-objective methods to difficult problems, and is aimed at researchers who are already familiar with single-objective reinforcement learning and planning methods who wish to adopt a multi-objective perspective on their research, as well as practitioners who encounter multi-objective decision problems in practice. It identifies the factors that may influence the nature of the desired solution, and illustrates by example how these influence the design of multi-objective decision-making systems for complex problems.
Multitask Reinforcement Learning is a promising way to obtain models with better performance, generalisation, data efficiency, and robustness. Most existing work is limited to compatible settings, where the state and action space dimensions are the same across tasks. Graph Neural Networks (GNN) are one way to address incompatible environments, because they can process graphs of arbitrary size. They also allow practitioners to inject biases encoded in the structure of the input graph. Existing work in graph-based continuous control uses the physical morphology of the agent to construct the input graph, i.e., encoding limb features as node labels and using edges to connect the nodes if their corresponded limbs are physically connected. In this work, we present a series of ablations on existing methods that show that morphological information encoded in the graph does not improve their performance. Motivated by the hypothesis that any benefits GNNs extract from the graph structure are outweighed by difficulties they create for message passing, we also propose Amorpheus, a transformer-based approach. Further results show that, while Amorpheus ignores the morphological information that GNNs encode, it nonetheless substantially outperforms GNN-based methods.
Reinforcement learners are agents that learn to pick actions that lead to high reward. Ideally, the value of a reinforcement learner's policy approaches optimality--where the optimal informed policy is the one which maximizes reward. Unfortunately, we show that if an agent is guaranteed to be "asymptotically optimal" in any (stochastically computable) environment, then subject to an assumption about the true environment, this agent will be either destroyed or incapacitated with probability 1; both of these are forms of traps as understood in the Markov Decision Process literature. Environments with traps pose a well-known problem for agents, but we are unaware of other work which shows that traps are not only a risk, but a certainty, for agents of a certain caliber. Much work in reinforcement learning uses an ergodicity assumption to avoid this problem. Often, doing theoretical research under simplifying assumptions prepares us to provide practical solutions even in the absence of those assumptions, but the ergodicity assumption in reinforcement learning may have led us entirely astray in preparing safe and effective exploration strategies for agents in dangerous environments. Rather than assuming away the problem, we present an agent with the modest guarantee of approaching the performance of a mentor, doing safe exploration instead of reckless exploration.
V ARIBAD: A V ERY G OOD M ETHOD FOR B AYES-A DAPTIVE D EEP RL VIA M ETA-L EARNING Luisa Zintgraf University of Oxford Kyriacos Shiarlis Latent Logic Maximilian Igl University of Oxford Sebastian Schulze University of Oxford Y arin Gal OA TML Group, University of Oxford Katja Hofmann Microsoft Research Shimon Whiteson University of Oxford Latent Logic A BSTRACT Trading off exploration and exploitation in an unknown environment is key to maximising expected return during learning. A Bayes-optimal policy, which does so optimally, conditions its actions not only on the environment state but on the agent's uncertainty about the environment. Computing a Bayes-optimal policy is however intractable for all but the smallest tasks. In this paper, we introduce variational Bayes-Adaptive Deep RL (variBAD), a way to meta-learn to perform approximate inference in an unknown environment, and incorporate task uncertainty directly during action selection. In a grid-world domain, we illustrate how variBAD performs structured online exploration as a function of task uncertainty. We also evaluate variBAD on MuJoCo domains widely used in meta-RL and show that it achieves higher return during training than existing methods. 1 I NTRODUCTION Reinforcement learning (RL) is typically concerned with finding an optimal policy that maximises expected return for a given Markov decision process (MDP) with an unknown reward and transition function. If these were known, the optimal policy could in theory be computed without interacting with the environment. By contrast, learning in an unknown environment typically requires trading off exploration (learning about the environment) and exploitation (taking promising actions). Balancing this tradeoff is key to maximising expected return during learning . A Bayes-optimal policy, which does so optimally, conditions actions not only on the environment state but on the agent's own uncertainty about the current MDP . In principle, a Bayes-optimal policy can be computed using the framework of Bayes-adaptive Markov decision processes (BAMDPs) (Martin, 1967; Duff & Barto, 2002). The agent maintains a belief, i.e., a posterior distribution, over possible environments. Augmenting the state space of the underlying MDP with this posterior distribution yields a BAMDP, a special case of a belief MDP (Kaelbling et al., 1998).
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