Collaborating Authors


Garmin Vivoactive 4 review: A sleek smartwatch that inspires goal-setting


Before I tried it out, I wasn't sure who the vívoactive 4 was created for. Garmin calls it a "smart GPS smartwatch built for your active lifestyle," but that left me wondering: Is it for serious athletes? People who aren't very active but want to be? Two weeks and many miles of running later, I have a better idea. In a nutshell, the vívoactive 4 strikes me as a hybrid smartwatch, combining some essential features of a fitness watch with the look and feel of a classic smartwatch.

2021 Best Insights From Quantum Computing Top Leaders


And this overhead is relatively large, so it's estimated that you need a few 100 to 1000 physical qubits to get to one logical qubit. And then this logical qubit has a significantly suppressed error. And then you can start to work with that, in this clean theoretic computational paradigm where you ignore more or less the noise from the hardware.

Council Post: How Quantum Computing Will Transform Cybersecurity


Paul Lipman has worked in cybersecurity for 10 years. Quantum computing is based on quantum mechanics, which governs how nature works at the smallest scales. The smallest classical computing element is a bit, which can be either 0 or 1. The quantum equivalent is a qubit, which can also be 0 or 1 or in what's called a superposition -- any combination of 0 and 1. Performing a calculation on two classical bits (which can be 00, 01, 10 and 11) requires four calculations. A quantum computer can perform calculations on all four states simultaneously.

Eternal Change for No Energy: A Time Crystal Finally Made Real


In a preprint posted online Thursday night, researchers at Google in collaboration with physicists at Stanford, Princeton and other universities say that they have used Google's quantum computer to demonstrate a genuine "time crystal." In addition, a separate research group claimed earlier this month to have created a time crystal in a diamond. A novel phase of matter that physicists have strived to realize for many years, a time crystal is an object whose parts move in a regular, repeating cycle, sustaining this constant change without burning any energy. "The consequence is amazing: You evade the second law of thermodynamics," said Roderich Moessner, director of the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in Dresden, Germany, and a co-author on the Google paper. That's the law that says disorder always increases.

Quantum Computing With AI and Blockchain In 2021: The Future of IT


Quantum computing, AI and blockchain are being explored as drivers for business transformation and intelligent change by leading organizations. Quantum computing has the potential to address the computational needs of modern technological industry development in areas such as drug development and manufacturing, where traditional and supercomputers aren't able to provide the simulations necessary to further enhance and deliver new developments to these industries. Over 60 countries have developed national AI strategies and policies to promote AI development and research and explore risk mitigation using AI. Also, distributed ledger technologies using blockchain are helping to secure data and transactions in areas like finance, government, energy, and transportation. Quantum computing, AI and blockchain naturally coincide, as quantum computing will help bring new levels of computational power and efficiency as data growth and accumulation for industry solutions are on the rise.

Best back to school tech 2021: Remote student gear


Technology makes the shift possible, but challenges abound. A work from home culture, business leaders adopting different policies on returning to the office due to COVID-19, and constantly-changing legislation and advice have left enterprise companies in a spin -- but both parents and students have also felt the impact of the pandemic. For younger students, this has meant parents doing what they can to manage their own workloads, collaborate with teachers, and keep their children entertained and learning in some way. For older students, studying in their bedroom or a home office, rather than being on campus, now seems normal. The imposition of lockdowns came as a shock to everyone last year and while few of us were prepared for communicating with others virtually on a daily basis, until the pandemic wanes, remote learning methods are unlikely to vanish entirely.

The best processors for laptops 2021: We compare Intel vs. AMD


That was an easy answer just a few years ago, when Intel's product line was far and away the strongest. But with multiple generations of AMD's game-changing Ryzen chips finally giving Intel some real competition, you have more to think about. We're here to help you navigate this wider landscape, but without thousands of words and stacks of charts. We'll start with a quick primer on the strengths and weaknesses of each chip, then we'll discuss how to pick the right one for you. To keep this from getting too overwhelming, we'll stick only to the mainstream CPUs that typically go into three-pound, thin-and-light laptops, rather than get into the high-performance chips that go into thicker and heavier gaming laptops.

Proximity and single-molecule energetics


Probing single molecules in their nanoenvironment can reveal site-specific phenomena that would be obscured by ensemble-averaging experiments on macroscopic populations of molecules. Particularly in the past decade, major technological breakthroughs in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) have led to unprecedented spatial resolution and versatility and enabled the interrogation of molecular conformation, bond order, molecular orbitals, charge states, spins, phonons, and intermolecular interactions. On page 452 of this issue, Peng et al. ([ 1 ][1]) use SPM to directly measure the triplet lifetime of an individual pentacene molecule and demonstrate its dependence on interactions with nearby oxygen molecules with atomic precision. In addition to allowing the local tuning and probing of spin-spin interactions between molecules, this study represents a notable advance in the single-molecule regime and provides insights into many macroscopic behaviors and related applications in catalysis, energy-conversion materials, or biological systems. Single-molecule studies have benefited from the high resolution achieved with well-defined functionalized probes, especially with carbon monoxide–terminated atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips ([ 2 ][2]). The versatility and applicability of AFM have also been enhanced by biasing the tip with gate voltages and supporting molecules on insulating substrates. In this configuration, the conductive AFM tip serves as an atomically controlled charge injector with single-charge sensitivity. Such electrical addressing of electronic states of single molecules ([ 3 ][3]) allows for the study of charge distribution and transport in single-molecule devices, organic electronics, and photovoltaics. Beyond steady-state spectroscopy, excited-state dynamics of single molecules can be measured by using an ultrashort and high-intensity electric (voltage) or optical (laser) pulse (the “pump”) to excite the sample. After a nonequilibrium state is generated, a second weaker pulse (the “probe”) monitors the change of the excited state. By varying the time delay between the two pulses, the temporal evolution of the excited state can be mapped out. Peng et al. used the electronic pump-probe approach in AFM to measure the lifetime of the excited triplet state of an individual pentacene molecule with atomic precision (see the figure). They observed strong quenching of the triplet lifetime by co-adsorbed molecular oxygen (O2). The electronic energy-transfer processes had an intriguing dependence on the arrangement of surrounding O2 molecules, which they controlled by atomic manipulation with the tip. Spin-relaxation measurements of single molecules in space with atomic resolution provide insights into their local interactions with each other, as well as with their nanoenvironment. Such information could be useful for spin-based quantum-information storage or quantum computing ([ 4 ][4]). Given the radiative relaxation of excited states, SPM-coupled optical spectroscopy provides a powerful tool to perform spatially and energy-resolved spectroscopic studies of single molecules. Specifically, site-resolved excitations of molecules can be induced by highly localized scanning tunnel microscopy (STM) current, and the resulting luminescence, which carries information that describes excited states, can be probed by integrated optical detection systems. This approach revealed redox state–dependent excitation of single molecules and intermolecular excitonic coupling interactions with atomic-scale spatial precision ([ 5 ][5], [ 6 ][6]). A study of electroluminescence demonstrated selective triplet formation by manipulating electron spin inside a molecule ([ 7 ][7]), which could provide a route to interrogate quantum spintronics and organic electronics at the single-molecule level. Besides tunneling electrons, the interaction of photons with molecules can provide valuable structural information and chemical identification through measurements of absorption, emission, or scattering of light. In particular, by confining laser light at the atomic-scale SPM junction and taking advantage of plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy can overcome the diffraction limit of conventional optical spectroscopy and thereby achieve submolecular chemical spatial resolution ([ 8 ][8]). Such capability provides in-depth insights into single-molecule chemistry and site-specific chemical effects at the spatial limit ([ 9 ][9]). ![Figure][10] Atomically addressing excited single molecules The effect of nearby oxygen molecules on the lifetimes (τ) of triplet states T x , T y , and T z or T1 decaying to the singlet state S of individual pentacene molecules has been probed on an insulating salt surface. GRAPHIC: V. ALTOUNIAN/ SCIENCE Most excited states induced by photon absorption are incredibly short-lived (on the order of picoseconds to femtoseconds), so time-resolved optical STM techniques have been developed with ultrafast lasers. For example, pump-probe terahertz laser pulses were used to induce state-selective ultrafast STM tunneling currents through a single molecule. This approach allowed the molecular orbital structure and vibrations to be measured directly on the femtosecond time scale ([ 10 ][11]). Optical STM further showed the capability to explore photon and field-driven tunneling with angstrom-scale spatial resolution and attosecond temporal resolution. This experimental platform can be used to study quasiparticle dynamics in superconductor and two-dimensional materials with exceptional resolutions ([ 11 ][12]). Single-molecule studies could open avenues to access extremely transient states and chemical heterogeneity, suc h as the vibration of atoms within a molecule, the precession of a spin, ultrashort-lived complex reaction intermediates, and some key stochastic processes of reactions in chemistry and biology. For example, the study of Peng et al. relates to the reactivity of electronic excited states of organic molecules to O2 (and thus air). These processes can affect various natural photochemical and photophysical processes undergoing excitation by sunligh that can lead to transformation, degradation, or aging ([ 12 ][13]). The insightful descriptions of molecular conformation, dynamics, and function provided by spatially resolved single-molecule studies could inform complex and emergent behaviors of populations of molecules or even cells. 1. [↵][14]1. J. Peng et al ., Science 373, 452 (2021). [OpenUrl][15][Abstract/FREE Full Text][16] 2. [↵][17]1. L. Gross, 2. F. Mohn, 3. N. Moll, 4. P. Liljeroth, 5. G. Meyer , Science 325, 1110 (2009). [OpenUrl][18][Abstract/FREE Full Text][19] 3. [↵][20]1. S. Fatayer et al ., Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 376 (2018). [OpenUrl][21][CrossRef][22][PubMed][23] 4. [↵][24]1. M. N. Leuenberger, 2. D. Loss , Nature 410, 789 (2001). [OpenUrl][25][CrossRef][26][PubMed][27] 5. [↵][28]1. Y. Zhang et al ., Nature 531, 623 (2016). [OpenUrl][29][CrossRef][30][PubMed][31] 6. [↵][32]1. B. Doppagne et al ., Science 361, 251 (2018). [OpenUrl][33][Abstract/FREE Full Text][34] 7. [↵][35]1. K. Kimura et al ., Nature 570, 210 (2019). [OpenUrl][36][CrossRef][37][PubMed][38] 8. [↵][39]1. J. Lee, 2. K. T. Crampton, 3. N. Tallarida, 4. V. A. Apkarian , Nature 568, 78 (2019). [OpenUrl][40][CrossRef][41][PubMed][42] 9. [↵][43]1. S. Mahapatra, 2. L. Li, 3. J. F. Schultz, 4. N. Jiang , J. Chem. Phys. 153, 010902 (2020). [OpenUrl][44] 10. [↵][45]1. T. L. Cocker, 2. D. Peller, 3. P. Yu, 4. J. Repp, 5. R. Huber , Nature 539, 263 (2016). [OpenUrl][46][CrossRef][47][PubMed][48] 11. [↵][49]1. M. Garg, 2. K. Kern , Science 367, 411 (2020). [OpenUrl][50][Abstract/FREE Full Text][51] 12. [↵][52]1. P. R. Ogilby , Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 3181 (2010). [OpenUrl][53][CrossRef][54][PubMed][55] Acknowledgments: We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (CHE-1944796). 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IBM and CERN want to use quantum computing to unlock the mysteries of the universe


It is likely that future quantum computers will significantly boost the understanding of CERN's gigantic particle collider. The potential of quantum computers is currently being discussed in settings ranging from banks to merchant ships, and now the technology has been taken even further afield – or rather, lower down. One hundred meters below the Franco-Swiss border sits the world's largest machine, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operated by the European laboratory for particle physics, CERN. And to better understand the mountains of data produced by such a colossal system, CERN's scientists have been asking IBM's quantum team for some assistance. The partnership has been successful: in a new paper, which is yet to be peer-reviewed, IBM's researchers have established that quantum algorithms can help make sense of the LHC's data, meaning that it is likely that future quantum computers will significantly boost scientific discoveries at CERN. With CERN's mission statement being to understand why anything in the universe happens at all, this could have big implications for anyone interested in all things matter, antimatter, dark matter and so on.

Steam Deck: is it the Nintendo Switch for nerds?

The Guardian

It looks like Valve has done it again. The company that surprised everyone by pivoting from game developer to digital shopkeeper with the launch of Steam, then leapt into virtual reality with the HTC Vive and Valve Index headsets, is now taking on Nintendo with a powerful handheld games console. Announced on 16 July and due to launch in December, the Steam Deck features a 7in LCD touchscreen, an array of analogue and touch-pad controls, a gyroscope for motion detection, wifi connectivity and a base station so it can be hooked up to a monitor. Tech-wise, it's built around a custom Zen 2 AMD processor, AMD RDNA 2 GPU and 16GB of memory. In a recent deep dive on the machine's specs, Eurogamer found it compared to the Xbox Series S console in terms of performance.