Collaborating Authors


Application of Machine Learning Methods in Inferring Surface Water Groundwater Exchanges using High Temporal Resolution Temperature Measurements Machine Learning

We examine the ability of machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms to infer surface/ground exchange flux based on subsurface temperature observations. The observations and fluxes are produced from a high-resolution numerical model representing conditions in the Columbia River near the Department of Energy Hanford site located in southeastern Washington State. Random measurement error, of varying magnitude, is added to the synthetic temperature observations. The results indicate that both ML and DL methods can be used to infer the surface/ground exchange flux. DL methods, especially convolutional neural networks, outperform the ML methods when used to interpret noisy temperature data with a smoothing filter applied. However, the ML methods also performed well and they are can better identify a reduced number of important observations, which could be useful for measurement network optimization. Surprisingly, the ML and DL methods better inferred upward flux than downward flux. This is in direct contrast to previous findings using numerical models to infer flux from temperature observations and it may suggest that combined use of ML or DL inference with numerical inference could improve flux estimation beneath river systems.

A case for AI: Water pipeline leaks


Another aspect is improving service to customers. "We have to maintain a lot of pipelines in a large area, and we wanted to improve our ability to pinpoint leaks through smart metering zones. For this purpose, we set out to find an AI-based solution," Victor recalls. VA SYD evaluated several systems over the last few years, looking for a solution that was state of the art. It would also have to make optimum use of the available flowmeters and smart meters in the area that had been chosen for the proof of concept.

New Age of Sail combines robots and sailboats


Matt Rutherford was just a few days into his planned unaided, non-stop solo-sailing trip around North and South America when he realized he'd left all his extra pants on the dock. The days of preparation before setting off had been frantic and a few things got left behind. He was facing 309 days at sea with little human contact and his small 27-foot sailboat, which he got for free and outfitted himself, was designed for bay sailing and not the notoriously unrelenting weather and towering seas of Cape Horn or the perilous ice of the Northwest Passage. To cap it off, he had just spilled diesel fuel all over himself, the result of a leaking fuel bladder, and he really wanted a change of clothes. Most people would have turned back.

92 Percent Accurate Pipeline Assessment Using Artificial Intelligence And IoT


Traditionally, water utility districts managed underground infrastructure on a haphazard basis. Managers relied on visual occurrences and reports from the public about problems and sent field crew to fix pipeline leaks and ruptures as they happened. The unpredictability of pipeline leaks and failures was costly, and water utility managers had no way of conducting pipeline assessments to prevent future breaches. Today, Artificial Intelligence (AI), in conjunction with the Internet of Things (IoT), helps water utility district officials to predict the likelihood of pipeline leaks. With predictive analytics and smart data in hand, city officials can implement maintenance plans to prevent costly ruptures and plan new infrastructure.

Modeling and Uncertainty Analysis of Groundwater Level Using Six Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms Hybridized with ANFIS, SVM, and ANN Machine Learning

In the present study, six meta-heuristic schemes are hybridized with artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system (ANFIS), and support vector machine (SVM), to predict monthly groundwater level (GWL), evaluate uncertainty analysis of predictions and spatial variation analysis. The six schemes, including grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA), cat swarm optimization (CSO), weed algorithm (WA), genetic algorithm (GA), krill algorithm (KA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO), were used to hybridize for improving the performance of ANN, SVM, and ANFIS models. Groundwater level (GWL) data of Ardebil plain (Iran) for a period of 144 months were selected to evaluate the hybrid models. The pre-processing technique of principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce input combinations from monthly time series up to 12-month prediction intervals. The results showed that the ANFIS-GOA was superior to the other hybrid models for predicting GWL in the first piezometer and third piezometer in the testing stage. The performance of hybrid models with optimization algorithms was far better than that of classical ANN, ANFIS, and SVM models without hybridization. The percent of improvements in the ANFIS-GOA versus standalone ANFIS in piezometer 10 were 14.4%, 3%, 17.8%, and 181% for RMSE, MAE, NSE, and PBIAS in the training stage and 40.7%, 55%, 25%, and 132% in testing stage, respectively. The improvements for piezometer 6 in train step were 15%, 4%, 13%, and 208% and in the test step were 33%, 44.6%, 16.3%, and 173%, respectively, that clearly confirm the superiority of developed hybridization schemes in GWL modeling. Uncertainty analysis showed that ANFIS-GOA and SVM had, respectively, the best and worst performances among other models. In general, GOA enhanced the accuracy of the ANFIS, ANN, and SVM models.

A Comprehensive Review of Deep Learning Applications in Hydrology and Water Resources Machine Learning

The global volume of digital data is expected to reach 175 zettabytes by 2025. The volume, variety, and velocity of water-related data are increasing due to large-scale sensor networks and increased attention to topics such as disaster response, water resources management, and climate change. Combined with the growing availability of computational resources and popularity of deep learning, these data are transformed into actionable and practical knowledge, revolutionizing the water industry. In this article, a systematic review of literature is conducted to identify existing research which incorporates deep learning methods in the water sector, with regard to monitoring, management, governance and communication of water resources. The study provides a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art deep learning approaches used in the water industry for generation, prediction, enhancement, and classification tasks, and serves as a guide for how to utilize available deep learning methods for future water resources challenges. Key issues and challenges in the application of these techniques in the water domain are discussed, including the ethics of these technologies for decision-making in water resources management and governance. Finally, we provide recommendations and future directions for the application of deep learning models in hydrology and water resources.

Probabilistic Multi-Step-Ahead Short-Term Water Demand Forecasting with Lasso Machine Learning

Water demand is a highly important variable for operational control and decision making. Hence, the development of accurate forecasts is a valuable field of research to further improve the efficiency of water utilities. Focusing on probabilistic multi-step-ahead forecasting, a time series model is introduced, to capture typical autoregressive, calendar and seasonal effects, to account for time-varying variance, and to quantify the uncertainty and path-dependency of the water demand process. To deal with the high complexity of the water demand process a high-dimensional feature space is applied, which is efficiently tuned by an automatic shrinkage and selection operator (lasso). It allows to obtain an accurate, simple interpretable and fast computable forecasting model, which is well suited for real-time applications. The complete probabilistic forecasting framework allows not only for simulating the mean and the marginal properties, but also the correlation structure between hours within the forecasting horizon. For practitioners, complete probabilistic multi-step-ahead forecasts are of considerable relevance as they provide additional information about the expected aggregated or cumulative water demand, so that a statement can be made about the probability with which a water storage capacity can guarantee the supply over a certain period of time. This information allows to better control storage capacities and to better ensure the smooth operation of pumps. To appropriately evaluate the forecasting performance of the considered models, the energy score (ES) as a strictly proper multidimensional evaluation criterion, is introduced. The methodology is applied to the hourly water demand data of a German water supplier.

Gaussian Mixture Marginal Distributions for Modelling Remaining Pipe Wall Thickness of Critical Water Mains in Non-Destructive Evaluation Machine Learning

Rapidly estimating the remaining wall thickness (RWT) is paramount for the non-destructive condition assessment evaluation of large critical metallic pipelines. A robotic vehicle with embedded magnetism-based sensors has been developed to traverse the inside of a pipeline and conduct inspections at the location of a break. However its sensing speed is constrained by the magnetic principle of operation, thus slowing down the overall operation in seeking dense RWT mapping. To ameliorate this drawback, this work proposes the partial scanning of the pipe and then employing Gaussian Processes (GPs) to infer RWT at the unseen pipe sections. Since GP prediction assumes to have normally distributed input data - which does correspond with real RWT measurements - Gaussian mixture (GM) models are proven in this work as fitting marginal distributions to effectively capture the probability of any RWT value in the inspected data. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is extensively validated from real-world data collected in collaboration with a water utility from a cast iron water main pipeline in Sydney, Australia.

Prediction of Construction Cost for Field Canals Improvement Projects in Egypt Artificial Intelligence

Field canals improvement projects (FCIPs) are one of the ambitious projects constructed to save fresh water. To finance this project, Conceptual cost models are important to accurately predict preliminary costs at the early stages of the project. The first step is to develop a conceptual cost model to identify key cost drivers affecting the project. Therefore, input variables selection remains an important part of model development, as the poor variables selection can decrease model precision. The study discovered the most important drivers of FCIPs based on a qualitative approach and a quantitative approach. Subsequently, the study has developed a parametric cost model based on machine learning methods such as regression methods, artificial neural networks, fuzzy model and case-based reasoning.

Anomaly Detection with Generative Adversarial Networks for Multivariate Time Series Machine Learning

Today's Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are large, complex, and affixed with networked sensors and actuators that are targets for cyber-attacks. Conventional detection techniques are unable to deal with the increasingly dynamic and complex nature of the CPSs. On the other hand, the networked sensors and actuators generate large amounts of data streams that can be continuously monitored for intrusion events. Unsupervised machine learning techniques can be used to model the system behaviour and classify deviant behaviours as possible attacks. In this work, we proposed a novel Generative Adversarial Networks-based Anomaly Detection (GAN-AD) method for such complex networked CPSs. We used LSTM-RNN in our GAN to capture the distribution of the multivariate time series of the sensors and actuators under normal working conditions of a CPS. Instead of treating each sensor's and actuator's time series independently, we model the time series of multiple sensors and actuators in the CPS concurrently to take into account of potential latent interactions between them. To exploit both the generator and the discriminator of our GAN, we deployed the GAN-trained discriminator together with the residuals between generator-reconstructed data and the actual samples to detect possible anomalies in the complex CPS. We used our GAN-AD to distinguish abnormal attacked situations from normal working conditions for a complex six-stage Secure Water Treatment (SWaT) system. Experimental results showed that the proposed strategy is effective in identifying anomalies caused by various attacks with high detection rate and low false positive rate as compared to existing methods.