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Fake News Detection Using Machine Learning Ensemble Methods

#artificialintelligence

The advent of the World Wide Web and the rapid adoption of social media platforms (such as Facebook and Twitter) paved the way for information dissemination that has never been witnessed in the human history before. With the current usage of social media platforms, consumers are creating and sharing more information than ever before, some of which are misleading with no relevance to reality. Automated classification of a text article as misinformation or disinformation is a challenging task. Even an expert in a particular domain has to explore multiple aspects before giving a verdict on the truthfulness of an article. In this work, we propose to use machine learning ensemble approach for automated classification of news articles. Our study explores different textual properties that can be used to distinguish fake contents from real. By using those properties, we train a combination of different machine learning algorithms using various ensemble methods and evaluate their performance on 4 real world datasets. Experimental evaluation confirms the superior performance of our proposed ensemble learner approach in comparison to individual learners. The advent of the World Wide Web and the rapid adoption of social media platforms (such as Facebook and Twitter) paved the way for information dissemination that has never been witnessed in the human history before. Besides other use cases, news outlets benefitted from the widespread use of social media platforms by providing updated news in near real time to its subscribers. The news media evolved from newspapers, tabloids, and magazines to a digital form such as online news platforms, blogs, social media feeds, and other digital media formats [1]. It became easier for consumers to acquire the latest news at their fingertips.


Towards Personalized and Human-in-the-Loop Document Summarization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The ubiquitous availability of computing devices and the widespread use of the internet have generated a large amount of data continuously. Therefore, the amount of available information on any given topic is far beyond humans' processing capacity to properly process, causing what is known as information overload. To efficiently cope with large amounts of information and generate content with significant value to users, we require identifying, merging and summarising information. Data summaries can help gather related information and collect it into a shorter format that enables answering complicated questions, gaining new insight and discovering conceptual boundaries. This thesis focuses on three main challenges to alleviate information overload using novel summarisation techniques. It further intends to facilitate the analysis of documents to support personalised information extraction. This thesis separates the research issues into four areas, covering (i) feature engineering in document summarisation, (ii) traditional static and inflexible summaries, (iii) traditional generic summarisation approaches, and (iv) the need for reference summaries. We propose novel approaches to tackle these challenges, by: i)enabling automatic intelligent feature engineering, ii) enabling flexible and interactive summarisation, iii) utilising intelligent and personalised summarisation approaches. The experimental results prove the efficiency of the proposed approaches compared to other state-of-the-art models. We further propose solutions to the information overload problem in different domains through summarisation, covering network traffic data, health data and business process data.


Stance Detection with BERT Embeddings for Credibility Analysis of Information on Social Media

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The evolution of electronic media is a mixed blessing. Due to the easy access, low cost, and faster reach of the information, people search out and devour news from online social networks. In contrast, the increasing acceptance of social media reporting leads to the spread of fake news. This is a minacious problem that causes disputes and endangers societal stability and harmony. Fake news spread has gained attention from researchers due to its vicious nature. proliferation of misinformation in all media, from the internet to cable news, paid advertising and local news outlets, has made it essential for people to identify the misinformation and sort through the facts. Researchers are trying to analyze the credibility of information and curtail false information on such platforms. Credibility is the believability of the piece of information at hand. Analyzing the credibility of fake news is challenging due to the intent of its creation and the polychromatic nature of the news. In this work, we propose a model for detecting fake news. Our method investigates the content of the news at the early stage i.e. when the news is published but is yet to be disseminated through social media. Our work interprets the content with automatic feature extraction and the relevance of the text pieces. In summary, we introduce stance as one of the features along with the content of the article and employ the pre-trained contextualized word embeddings BERT to obtain the state-of-art results for fake news detection. The experiment conducted on the real-world dataset indicates that our model outperforms the previous work and enables fake news detection with an accuracy of 95.32%.


The AI Index 2021 Annual Report

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Welcome to the fourth edition of the AI Index Report. This year we significantly expanded the amount of data available in the report, worked with a broader set of external organizations to calibrate our data, and deepened our connections with the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence (HAI). The AI Index Report tracks, collates, distills, and visualizes data related to artificial intelligence. Its mission is to provide unbiased, rigorously vetted, and globally sourced data for policymakers, researchers, executives, journalists, and the general public to develop intuitions about the complex field of AI. The report aims to be the most credible and authoritative source for data and insights about AI in the world.


ETHOS: an Online Hate Speech Detection Dataset

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Online hate speech is a newborn problem in our modern society which is growing at a steady rate exploiting weaknesses of the corresponding regimes that characterise several social media platforms. Therefore, this phenomenon is mainly cultivated through such comments, either during users' interaction or on posted multimedia context. Nowadays, giant companies own platforms where many millions of users log in daily. Thus, protection of their users from exposure to similar phenomena for keeping up with the corresponding law, as well as for retaining a high quality of offered services, seems mandatory. Having a robust and reliable mechanism for identifying and preventing the uploading of related material would have a huge effect on our society regarding several aspects of our daily life. On the other hand, its absence would deteriorate heavily the total user experience, while its erroneous operation might raise several ethical issues. In this work, we present a protocol for creating a more suitable dataset, regarding its both informativeness and representativeness aspects, favouring the safer capture of hate speech occurrence, without at the same time restricting its applicability to other classification problems. Moreover, we produce and publish a textual dataset with two variants: binary and multi-label, called `ETHOS', based on YouTube and Reddit comments validated through figure-eight crowdsourcing platform. Our assumption about the production of more compatible datasets is further investigated by applying various classification models and recording their behaviour over several appropriate metrics.


Identifying Fake News from Twitter Sharing Data: A Large-Scale Study

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Social networks and the web have acted as large enablers of open communication in the society. These platforms have allowed millions of voices to be heard and have further created a network of information dissemination between the people. While such platforms like Facebook and Twitter havethe potential of starting democratic revolutions, when used incorrectly, they also offer misinformation the means to spread, and the resonance chambers where users can consume and reshare them [AG17]. The term fake news has emerged distinctively over the past few years, as the spread of targeted and artificially crafted news has plagued the fundamental information that people consumeregularly.