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How AI can give endangered elephants a fighting chance

#artificialintelligence

At present, more African elephants are dying than being born. Over the last century, the world's elephant population has declined 97% from trophy hunters, ruthless ivory mercenaries, and even terrorist groups. The Wildlife Conservation Society has pointed out that the global ivory trade leads to the death of up to 35,000 elephants a year in Africa. It's easy to point a finger at China as the biggest market for poached ivory in the world, yet only five years ago more than a ton of confiscated ivory was crushed in New York's Times Square by the Wildlife Conservation Society.


Mosques Smart Domes System using Machine Learning Algorithms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Millions of mosques around the world are suffering some problems such as ventilation and difficulty getting rid of bacteria, especially in rush hours where congestion in mosques leads to air pollution and spread of bacteria, in addition to unpleasant odors and to a state of discomfort during the pray times, where in most mosques there are no enough windows to ventilate the mosque well. This paper aims to solve these problems by building a model of smart mosques domes using weather features and outside temperatures. Machine learning algorithms such as k Nearest Neighbors and Decision Tree were applied to predict the state of the domes open or close. The experiments of this paper were applied on Prophet mosque in Saudi Arabia, which basically contains twenty seven manually moving domes. Both machine learning algorithms were tested and evaluated using different evaluation methods. After comparing the results for both algorithms, DT algorithm was achieved higher accuracy 98% comparing with 95% accuracy for kNN algorithm. Finally, the results of this study were promising and will be helpful for all mosques to use our proposed model for controlling domes automatically.


How Artificial Intelligence can help improve air quality – IAM Network

#artificialintelligence

When we think of air pollution, we often think of Delhi, perhaps Beijing, or even Shanghai. Hence, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that 9 out of 10 people around the world breathe polluted air.As humans, we contribute the most to air pollution by using energy to drive our vehicles, power our houses, run our data centers, and to travel. So much so that everything we use today was made at a factory that has contributed to air pollution.Today, technology has become an enabler to help address air pollution. It can aid in better measurement, identify its sources, develop policies, forecast, predict, and apply logic to problem solving. It can also provide elaborate opportunities for organisations and governments to optimise their operations and reduce their impact.Thanks to Artificial Intelligence (AI), air pollution can now be addressed more effectively.


How Artificial Intelligence can help improve air quality

#artificialintelligence

When we think of air pollution, we often think of Delhi, perhaps Beijing, or even Shanghai. Hence, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that 9 out of 10 people around the world breathe polluted air. As humans, we contribute the most to air pollution by using energy to drive our vehicles, power our houses, run our data centers, and to travel. So much so that everything we use today was made at a factory that has contributed to air pollution. Today, technology has become an enabler to help address air pollution.


How to reverse-engineer a rainforest

Engadget

But 2019 was the year the earth burned. In Australia, the world watched in horror as bushfires destroyed 10.3 million hectares, marking the continent's most intense and destructive fire season in over 40 years. Earlier that fall, California saw more than 101,000 hectares destroyed, with damages upward of $80 billion. Alaska saw nearly a million. Record-breaking fires also hit Indonesia, Russia, Lebanon -- but nowhere saw the sheer mass of media coverage as the fires that tore through the Amazon nearly all last summer. By year's end, thousands of global media outlets had reported that Brazil's largest rainforest played host to more than 80,000 individual forest fires in 2019, resulting in an estimated 906,000 square hectares of environmental destruction. At the time, Brazil's National Institute for Space Research reported it was the fastest rate of burning since record keeping began in 2013. But amid the charred ruins of one of the largest oxygen-producing environments on the planet, a secret lies buried beneath the soil.


AI system can predict air pollution before it happens

#artificialintelligence

Air pollution kills an estimated seven million people every year and cities around the world are being forced to take action to do what they can to lower the risk to inhabitants. A team of Loughborough University computer scientists believe their AI system has the potential to provide new insight into the environmental factors that have significant impacts on air pollution levels. In particular it focuses on the amount of'PM2.5' In 2013, a study involving 312,944 people in nine European countries revealed that there was no safe level of particulates. PM2.5 particulates were found to be particularly deadly, blamed for a 36 per cent increase in lung cancer per 10 μg/m3 as they can penetrate deep into the lungs.


A novel artificial intelligence system that predicts air pollution levels

#artificialintelligence

Imagine being scared to breathe the air around you. An unusual concept for us here in the UK, but it is a genuine concern for communities all over the world with air pollution killing an estimated seven million people every year. A team of Loughborough University computer scientists are hoping to help eradicate this fear with a new artificial intelligence (AI) system they have developed that can predict air pollution levels hours in advance. The technology is novel for a number of reasons, one being that it has the potential to provide new insight into the environmental factors that have significant impacts on air pollution levels. Professor Qinggang Meng and Dr. Baihua Li are leading the project which is focused on using AI to predict PM2.5--particulate matter of less than 2.5 microns (10-6 m) in diameter--that is often characterized as reduced visibility in cities and hazy-looking air when levels are high.


Analytical Equations based Prediction Approach for PM2.5 using Artificial Neural Network

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Particulate matter pollution is one of the deadliest types of air pollution worldwide due to its significant impacts on the global environment and human health. Particulate Matter (PM2.5) is one of the important particulate pollutants to measure the Air Quality Index (AQI). The conventional instruments used by the air quality monitoring stations to monitor PM2.5 are costly, bulkier, time-consuming, and power-hungry. Furthermore, due to limited data availability and non-scalability, these stations cannot provide high spatial and temporal resolution in real-time. To overcome the disadvantages of existing methodology this article presents analytical equations based prediction approach for PM2.5 using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Since the derived analytical equations for the prediction can be computed using a Wireless Sensor Node (WSN) or low-cost processing tool, it demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach. Moreover, the study related to correlation among the PM2.5 and other pollutants is performed to select the appropriate predictors. The large authenticate data set of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) online station, India is used for the proposed approach. The RMSE and coefficient of determination (R2) obtained for the proposed prediction approach using eight predictors are 1.7973 ug/m3 and 0.9986 respectively. While the proposed approach results show RMSE of 7.5372 ug/m3 and R2 of 0.9708 using three predictors. Therefore, the results demonstrate that the proposed approach is one of the promising approaches for monitoring PM2.5 without power-hungry gas sensors and bulkier analyzers.


MapLUR: Exploring a new Paradigm for Estimating Air Pollution using Deep Learning on Map Images

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Land-use regression (LUR) models are important for the assessment of air pollution concentrations in areas without measurement stations. While many such models exist, they often use manually constructed features based on restricted, locally available data. Thus, they are typically hard to reproduce and challenging to adapt to areas beyond those they have been developed for. In this paper, we advocate a paradigm shift for LUR models: We propose the Data-driven, Open, Global (DOG) paradigm that entails models based on purely data-driven approaches using only openly and globally available data. Progress within this paradigm will alleviate the need for experts to adapt models to the local characteristics of the available data sources and thus facilitate the generalizability of air pollution models to new areas on a global scale. In order to illustrate the feasibility of the DOG paradigm for LUR, we introduce a deep learning model called MapLUR. It is based on a convolutional neural network architecture and is trained exclusively on globally and openly available map data without requiring manual feature engineering. We compare our model to state-of-the-art baselines like linear regression, random forests and multi-layer perceptrons using a large data set of modeled $\text{NO}_2$ concentrations in Central London. Our results show that MapLUR significantly outperforms these approaches even though they are provided with manually tailored features. Furthermore, we illustrate that the automatic feature extraction inherent to models based on the DOG paradigm can learn features that are readily interpretable and closely resemble those commonly used in traditional LUR approaches.


DeepPlume: Very High Resolution Real-Time Air Quality Mapping

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper presents an engine able to predict jointly the real-time concentration of the main pollutants harming people's health: nitrogen dioxyde (NO2), ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10, which are respectively the particles whose size are below 2.5 um and 10 um). The engine covers a large part of the world and is fed with real-time official stations measures, atmospheric models' forecasts, land cover data, road networks and traffic estimates to produce predictions with a very high resolution in the range of a few dozens of meters. This resolution makes the engine adapted to very innovative applications like street-level air quality mapping or air quality adjusted routing. Plume Labs has deployed a similar prediction engine to build several products aiming at providing air quality data to individuals and businesses. For the sake of clarity and reproducibility, the engine presented here has been built specifically for this paper and differs quite significantly from the one used in Plume Labs' products. A major difference is in the data sources feeding the engine: in particular, this prediction engine does not include mobile sensors measurements.