Civil Rights & Constitutional Law


Keep the ACM Code of Ethics As It Is

Communications of the ACM

The proposed changes to the ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, as discussed by Don Gotterbarn et al. in "ACM Code of Ethics: A Guide for Positive Action"1 (Digital Edition, Jan. 2018), are generally misguided and should be rejected by the ACM membership. ACM is a computing society, not a society of activists for social justice, community organizers, lawyers, police officers, or MBAs. The proposed changes add nothing related specifically to computing and far too much related to these other fields, and also fail to address, in any significant new way, probably the greatest ethical hole in computing today--security and hacking. If the proposed revised Code is ever submitted to a vote by the membership, I will be voting against it and urge other members to do so as well. ACM promotes ethical and social responsibility as key components of professionalism.


This chatbot helps refugees claim asylum, for free

Mashable

Refugees struggling with asylum applications can now use a chatbot to get free legal aid in the US, Canada and the UK. DoNotPay, created by London-born Stanford student Joshua Browder, started out as an artificial-intelligence lawyer helping with parking tickets and delayed flights. After success in those areas -- it overturned more than 160,000 parking fines across London and New York for free -- lawyers and nonprofits reached out saying that the idea of automated legal services cold be extended to help refugees stranded in these countries. "I hope it will allow anyone to have a right to safety, regardless of the ability to afford a lawyer," Browder, 20, told Mashable. The chatbot works by asking users a series of questions to determine if they're eligible for asylum protection under international law, such as: "Are you afraid of being subjected to torture in your home country?"


Chatbot that overturned 160,000 parking fines now helping refugees claim asylum

The Guardian

The creator of a chatbot which overturned more than 160,000 parking fines and helped vulnerable people apply for emergency housing is now turning the bot to helping refugees claim asylum. The original DoNotPay, created by Stanford student Joshua Browder, describes itself as "the world's first robot lawyer", giving free legal aid to users through a simple-to-use chat interface. The chatbot, using Facebook Messenger, can now help refugees fill in an immigration application in the US and Canada. For those in the UK, it helps them apply for asylum support. The London-born developer worked with lawyers in each country, as well as speaking to asylum seekers whose applications have been successful.


AI 'lawyer' correctly predicts outcomes of human rights trials

#artificialintelligence

For the first time, artificial intelligence has been used to predict the outcomes of cases heard at a major European court. Researchers from the University of Sheffield, the University of Pennsylvania and University College London programmed the machine to analyse text from cases heard at the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) and predict the outcome of the judicial decision. During tests, the AI used a machine learning algorithm to make predictions with 79 per cent accuracy. "We don't see AI replacing judges or lawyers, but we think they'd find it useful for rapidly identifying patterns in cases that lead to certain outcomes," explained Dr Nikolaos Aletras, who led the study at UCL Computer Science. "It could also be a valuable tool for highlighting which cases are most likely to be violations of the European Convention on Human Rights."


AI lawyer: I know how you ruled next summer

#artificialintelligence

RotM Artificial Intelligence can predict the outcomes of European Court of Human Rights trials to a high accuracy, according to research published today. The use of AI has is slowly seeping into many industries including the legal sector. AI can trawl through vast amounts of information at a faster rate than humans without slowing down, making it easier for lawyers to prepare for hearings. The paper, published in PeerJ Computer Science, shows that the new software has gone one step further. It can judge the final result of legal trials based on the information in human rights cases to 79 per cent accuracy.


An AI predicted the outcome of over 75% of human rights trials

#artificialintelligence

A team of researchers has used an artificial intelligence system to correctly predict the outcome of hundreds of human rights cases. The AI, developed in collaboration between University College London, the University of Sheffield and the University of Pennsylvania, analysed a variety of cases heard in the European Court of Human Rights. It was then able to predict the correct verdict with an accuracy of 79%. While the results make a convincing case for the use of machine learning in legal settings, the researchers don't believe it will mark the end of lawyers and judges. "There is a lot of hype about AI but we don't see it replacing judges or lawyers any time soon," said Dr Nikolaos Aletras, leader of the study at UCL. "What we do think is they'd find it useful for rapidly identifying patterns in cases that lead to certain outcomes."


artificial-intelligence-used-predict-outcome-hundreds-human-rights-cases-2435865

International Business Times

In the study, a team of British and American researchers said it had used an AI system to correctly predict the outcomes of hundreds of cases heard at the European Court of Human Rights. The AI, which analyzed 584 English language case texts related to Article 3, 6 and 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights using a machine learning algorithm, came to the same verdict as human judges in 79 percent of the cases. It could also be a valuable tool for highlighting which cases are most likely to be violations of the European Convention on Human Rights," lead researcher Nikolaos Aletras, also from UCL, noted in the statement. "It could also be a valuable tool for highlighting which cases are most likely to be violations of the European Convention on Human Rights."


AI predicts outcome of human rights cases - BBC News

#artificialintelligence

An artificial intelligence system has correctly predicted the outcomes of hundreds of cases heard at the European Court of Human Rights, researchers have claimed. The AI predicted the verdicts to an accuracy of 79%, according to the scientists involved. AI is increasingly being used in fields such as journalism, law and accountancy. But critics said no AI would be able to understand the nuances of a legal case. The study, which was conducted by researchers at University College London and the universities of Sheffield and Pennsylvania, does not spell an end to lawyers, the researchers said.


Even artificial intelligence robots face stereotypical sexism in the workplace

#artificialintelligence

We like to think we've moved past the workplace sexism of the 1950s, when men were professionals and women were secretaries. But while women have managed to break out of those subservient roles, the genders we assign to artificial-intelligence robots suggests our prejudices haven't made as much progress. After law firm BakerHostetler hired an AI "lawyer" named ROSS, journalist Rose Eveleth noted that the male name was somewhat unusual in the world of AI. I would just like to note that all the assistant AIs are given female names, but the lawyer AI is named Ross. Critics have previously noted that most AI assistants--including Apple's Siri, Google Now, Amazon's Alexa, and Microsoft's Cortana--sound like women.


Even artificial intelligence robots face stereotypical sexism in the workplace

#artificialintelligence

We like to think we've moved past the workplace sexism of the 1950s, when men were professionals and women were secretaries. But while women have managed to break out of those subservient roles, the genders we assign to artificial-intelligence robots suggests our prejudices haven't made as much progress. After law firm BakerHostetler hired an AI "lawyer" named ROSS, journalist Rose Eveleth noted that the male name was somewhat unusual in the world of AI. I would just like to note that all the assistant AIs are given female names, but the lawyer AI is named Ross. Critics have previously noted that most AI assistants--including Apple's Siri, Google Now, Amazon's Alexa, and Microsoft's Cortana--sound like women.