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Machine Learning Towards Intelligent Systems: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The emergence and continued reliance on the Internet and related technologies has resulted in the generation of large amounts of data that can be made available for analyses. However, humans do not possess the cognitive capabilities to understand such large amounts of data. Machine learning (ML) provides a mechanism for humans to process large amounts of data, gain insights about the behavior of the data, and make more informed decision based on the resulting analysis. ML has applications in various fields. This review focuses on some of the fields and applications such as education, healthcare, network security, banking and finance, and social media. Within these fields, there are multiple unique challenges that exist. However, ML can provide solutions to these challenges, as well as create further research opportunities. Accordingly, this work surveys some of the challenges facing the aforementioned fields and presents some of the previous literature works that tackled them. Moreover, it suggests several research opportunities that benefit from the use of ML to address these challenges.


Rise Of Artificial Intelligence In Healthcare Sector

#artificialintelligence

As we turn the corner on 2020, we find ourselves in the midst of the worst pandemic in a Century and our health care systems have been pushed to the brink of failure. To some of us it has been clear for several years that the health care system desperately needs disruption, but COVID-19 has made that easier to appreciate. Artificial intelligence is one of the biggest coming disruptions in healthcare. For some AI conjures images of a malevolent super intelligence that will outperform humanity across the board. For others AI represents a confluence of machine learning algorithms and petabytes of data that allows approximations of human decision making.


Probabilistic Machine Learning for Healthcare

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning can be used to make sense of healthcare data. Probabilistic machine learning models help provide a complete picture of observed data in healthcare. In this review, we examine how probabilistic machine learning can advance healthcare. We consider challenges in the predictive model building pipeline where probabilistic models can be beneficial including calibration and missing data. Beyond predictive models, we also investigate the utility of probabilistic machine learning models in phenotyping, in generative models for clinical use cases, and in reinforcement learning.


TRACER: A Framework for Facilitating Accurate and Interpretable Analytics for High Stakes Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In high stakes applications such as healthcare and finance analytics, the interpretability of predictive models is required and necessary for domain practitioners to trust the predictions. Traditional machine learning models, e.g., logistic regression (LR), are easy to interpret in nature. However, many of these models aggregate time-series data without considering the temporal correlations and variations. Therefore, their performance cannot match up to recurrent neural network (RNN) based models, which are nonetheless difficult to interpret. In this paper, we propose a general framework TRACER to facilitate accurate and interpretable predictions, with a novel model TITV devised for healthcare analytics and other high stakes applications such as financial investment and risk management. Different from LR and other existing RNN-based models, TITV is designed to capture both the time-invariant and the time-variant feature importance using a feature-wise transformation subnetwork and a self-attention subnetwork, for the feature influence shared over the entire time series and the time-related importance respectively. Healthcare analytics is adopted as a driving use case, and we note that the proposed TRACER is also applicable to other domains, e.g., fintech. We evaluate the accuracy of TRACER extensively in two real-world hospital datasets, and our doctors/clinicians further validate the interpretability of TRACER in both the patient level and the feature level. Besides, TRACER is also validated in a high stakes financial application and a critical temperature forecasting application. The experimental results confirm that TRACER facilitates both accurate and interpretable analytics for high stakes applications.


Health State Estimation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Life's most valuable asset is health. Continuously understanding the state of our health and modeling how it evolves is essential if we wish to improve it. Given the opportunity that people live with more data about their life today than any other time in history, the challenge rests in interweaving this data with the growing body of knowledge to compute and model the health state of an individual continually. This dissertation presents an approach to build a personal model and dynamically estimate the health state of an individual by fusing multi-modal data and domain knowledge. The system is stitched together from four essential abstraction elements: 1. the events in our life, 2. the layers of our biological systems (from molecular to an organism), 3. the functional utilities that arise from biological underpinnings, and 4. how we interact with these utilities in the reality of daily life. Connecting these four elements via graph network blocks forms the backbone by which we instantiate a digital twin of an individual. Edges and nodes in this graph structure are then regularly updated with learning techniques as data is continuously digested. Experiments demonstrate the use of dense and heterogeneous real-world data from a variety of personal and environmental sensors to monitor individual cardiovascular health state. State estimation and individual modeling is the fundamental basis to depart from disease-oriented approaches to a total health continuum paradigm. Precision in predicting health requires understanding state trajectory. By encasing this estimation within a navigational approach, a systematic guidance framework can plan actions to transition a current state towards a desired one. This work concludes by presenting this framework of combining the health state and personal graph model to perpetually plan and assist us in living life towards our goals.


The Risk to Population Health Equity Posed by Automated Decision Systems: A Narrative Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is already ubiquitous, and is increasingly being used to autonomously make ever more consequential decisions. However, there has been relatively little research into the consequences for equity of the use of narrow AI and automated decision systems in medicine and public health. A narrative review using a hermeneutic approach was undertaken to explore current and future uses of AI in medicine and public health, issues that have emerged, and longer-term implications for population health. Accounts in the literature reveal a tremendous expectation on AI to transform medical and public health practices, especially regarding precision medicine and precision public health. Automated decisions being made about disease detection, diagnosis, treatment, and health funding allocation have significant consequences for individual and population health and wellbeing. Meanwhile, it is evident that issues of bias, incontestability, and erosion of privacy have emerged in sensitive domains where narrow AI and automated decision systems are in common use. As the use of automated decision systems expands, it is probable that these same issues will manifest widely in medicine and public health applications. Bias, incontestability, and erosion of privacy are mechanisms by which existing social, economic and health disparities are perpetuated and amplified. The implication is that there is a significant risk that use of automated decision systems in health will exacerbate existing population health inequities. The industrial scale and rapidity with which automated decision systems can be applied to whole populations heightens the risk to population health equity. There is a need therefore to design and implement automated decision systems with care, monitor their impact over time, and develop capacities to respond to issues as they emerge.


Reinforcement Learning in Healthcare: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As a subfield of machine learning, \emph{reinforcement learning} (RL) aims at empowering one's capabilities in behavioural decision making by using interaction experience with the world and an evaluative feedback. Unlike traditional supervised learning methods that usually rely on one-shot, exhaustive and supervised reward signals, RL tackles with sequential decision making problems with sampled, evaluative and delayed feedback simultaneously. Such distinctive features make RL technique a suitable candidate for developing powerful solutions in a variety of healthcare domains, where diagnosing decisions or treatment regimes are usually characterized by a prolonged and sequential procedure. This survey will discuss the broad applications of RL techniques in healthcare domains, in order to provide the research community with systematic understanding of theoretical foundations, enabling methods and techniques, existing challenges, and new insights of this emerging paradigm. By first briefly examining theoretical foundations and key techniques in RL research from efficient and representational directions, we then provide an overview of RL applications in a variety of healthcare domains, ranging from dynamic treatment regimes in chronic diseases and critical care, automated medical diagnosis from both unstructured and structured clinical data, as well as many other control or scheduling domains that have infiltrated many aspects of a healthcare system. Finally, we summarize the challenges and open issues in current research, and point out some potential solutions and directions for future research.



Identifiable Phenotyping using Constrained Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This work proposes a new algorithm for automated and simultaneous phenotyping of multiple co-occurring medical conditions, also referred as comorbidities, using clinical notes from the electronic health records (EHRs). A basic latent factor estimation technique of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is augmented with domain specific constraints to obtain sparse latent factors that are anchored to a fixed set of chronic conditions. The proposed anchoring mechanism ensures a one-to-one identifiable and interpretable mapping between the latent factors and the target comorbidities. Qualitative assessment of the empirical results by clinical experts suggests that the proposed model learns clinically interpretable phenotypes while being predictive of 30 day mortality. The proposed method can be readily adapted to any non-negative EHR data across various healthcare institutions.