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Open Problems in Cooperative AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Problems of cooperation--in which agents seek ways to jointly improve their welfare--are ubiquitous and important. They can be found at scales ranging from our daily routines--such as driving on highways, scheduling meetings, and working collaboratively--to our global challenges--such as peace, commerce, and pandemic preparedness. Arguably, the success of the human species is rooted in our ability to cooperate. Since machines powered by artificial intelligence are playing an ever greater role in our lives, it will be important to equip them with the capabilities necessary to cooperate and to foster cooperation. We see an opportunity for the field of artificial intelligence to explicitly focus effort on this class of problems, which we term Cooperative AI. The objective of this research would be to study the many aspects of the problems of cooperation and to innovate in AI to contribute to solving these problems. Central goals include building machine agents with the capabilities needed for cooperation, building tools to foster cooperation in populations of (machine and/or human) agents, and otherwise conducting AI research for insight relevant to problems of cooperation. This research integrates ongoing work on multi-agent systems, game theory and social choice, human-machine interaction and alignment, natural-language processing, and the construction of social tools and platforms. However, Cooperative AI is not the union of these existing areas, but rather an independent bet about the productivity of specific kinds of conversations that involve these and other areas. We see opportunity to more explicitly focus on the problem of cooperation, to construct unified theory and vocabulary, and to build bridges with adjacent communities working on cooperation, including in the natural, social, and behavioural sciences.


A quick tour of what you missed at the NeurIPS 2020 AI conference

ZDNet

A panel talk Friday afternoon brought together AI scholars Gary Marcus, Yoshua Bengio, Daniel Kahneman, Luis Lamb, and moderator Francesca Rossi, for a spirited discussion of where machines and humans differ in their processing of abstract thought, logic, reason and many, many related questions. The crown jewel of AI conferences each year is the NeurIPS conference, which is regularly over-subscribed, and which usually takes place in pretty cities such as Montreal, Vancouver, and Barcelona. This year, the event was fully virtual because of the pandemic. While not as scenic, it was a well-organized, very rich six days of poster sessions, oral presentations, tutorials, workshops, symposia, invited talks, and some virtual wine and cheese thrown in, ending this past Friday, December 11th. They even managed to do some neat things with poster sessions. The whole conference as made possible via the open-source software Miniconf, along with use of Zoom and RocketChat. This is by no means a comprehensive survey.


Discovering Airline-Specific Business Intelligence from Online Passenger Reviews: An Unsupervised Text Analytics Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

To understand the important dimensions of service quality from the passenger's perspective and tailor service offerings for competitive advantage, airlines can capitalize on the abundantly available online customer reviews (OCR). The objective of this paper is to discover company- and competitor-specific intelligence from OCR using an unsupervised text analytics approach. First, the key aspects (or topics) discussed in the OCR are extracted using three topic models - probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) and two variants of Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA-VI and LDA-GS). Subsequently, we propose an ensemble-assisted topic model (EA-TM), which integrates the individual topic models, to classify each review sentence to the most representative aspect. Likewise, to determine the sentiment corresponding to a review sentence, an ensemble sentiment analyzer (E-SA), which combines the predictions of three opinion mining methods (AFINN, SentiStrength, and VADER), is developed. An aspect-based opinion summary (AOS), which provides a snapshot of passenger-perceived strengths and weaknesses of an airline, is established by consolidating the sentiments associated with each aspect. Furthermore, a bi-gram analysis of the labeled OCR is employed to perform root cause analysis within each identified aspect. A case study involving 99,147 airline reviews of a US-based target carrier and four of its competitors is used to validate the proposed approach. The results indicate that a cost- and time-effective performance summary of an airline and its competitors can be obtained from OCR. Finally, besides providing theoretical and managerial implications based on our results, we also provide implications for post-pandemic preparedness in the airline industry considering the unprecedented impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and predictions on similar pandemics in the future.


The pandemic is a watershed moment for digital transformation in customer service

ZDNet

This TechRepublic Premium ebook compiles the latest on cancelled conferences, cybersecurity attacks, remote work tips, and the impact this pandemic is having on the tech industry. Salesforce has published the fourth edition of its State of Service report, based on a survey of over 7,000 customer service agents, decision-makers, dispatchers, and mobile workers across 33 countries. The report covers a wide range of topics including the shift to digital channels, remote work, and field operations. What interested me the most, however, are findings on how the pandemic has accelerated the transformation of customer service from a necessary cost center to a strategic asset -- and the implications that have for digital transformation. As agents are called on to act as strategic advisors to customers with complex issues, automation of the more routine processes that once defined the role is on the rise. That, combined with a clearer understanding of the role artificial intelligence (AI) will play in the years to come, hints at exciting things to come.


Global Artificial Intelligence Processor Market 2020 Growth, Trends, Developments, Leading Players, Revenue, Business Insights Forecast to 2026 – Murphy's Hockey Law

#artificialintelligence

The report published on the global Artificial Intelligence Processor market is a comprehensive market study that focuses on the key players and key markets. The growth opportunities regarding this market as well as the future forecast and the status of the global Artificial Intelligence Processor market have been presented by this report. The market has been analyzed on the basis of the market value from the year 2020 to the year 2026. This study also includes an analysis of consumption, value, production and capacity. With the key manufacturers of the products in the market covered, the report presents its development plans for the future.


Deep Learning for Human Mobility: a Survey on Data and Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The study of human mobility is crucial due to its impact on several aspects of our society, such as disease spreading, urban planning, well-being, pollution, and more. The proliferation of digital mobility data, such as phone records, GPS traces, and social media posts, combined with the outstanding predictive power of artificial intelligence, triggered the application of deep learning to human mobility. In particular, the literature is focusing on three tasks: next-location prediction, i.e., predicting an individual's future locations; crowd flow prediction, i.e., forecasting flows on a geographic region; and trajectory generation, i.e., generating realistic individual trajectories. Existing surveys focus on single tasks, data sources, mechanistic or traditional machine learning approaches, while a comprehensive description of deep learning solutions is missing. This survey provides: (i) basic notions on mobility and deep learning; (ii) a review of data sources and public datasets; (iii) a description of deep learning models and (iv) a discussion about relevant open challenges. Our survey is a guide to the leading deep learning solutions to next-location prediction, crowd flow prediction, and trajectory generation. At the same time, it helps deep learning scientists and practitioners understand the fundamental concepts and the open challenges of the study of human mobility.


Artificial Intelligence for COVID-19 Detection -- A state-of-the-art review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The emergence of COVID-19 has necessitated many efforts by the scientific community for its proper management. An urgent clinical reaction is required in the face of the unending devastation being caused by the pandemic. These efforts include technological innovations for improvement in screening, treatment, vaccine development, contact tracing and, survival prediction. The use of Deep Learning (DL) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be sought in all of the above-mentioned spheres. This paper aims to review the role of Deep Learning and Artificial intelligence in various aspects of the overall COVID-19 management and particularly for COVID-19 detection and classification. The DL models are developed to analyze clinical modalities like CT scans and X-Ray images of patients and predict their pathological condition. A DL model aims to detect the COVID-19 pneumonia, classify and distinguish between COVID-19, Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP), Viral and Bacterial pneumonia, and normal conditions. Furthermore, sophisticated models can be built to segment the affected area in the lungs and quantify the infection volume for a better understanding of the extent of damage. Many models have been developed either independently or with the help of pre-trained models like VGG19, ResNet50, and AlexNet leveraging the concept of transfer learning. Apart from model development, data preprocessing and augmentation are also performed to cope with the challenge of insufficient data samples often encountered in medical applications. It can be evaluated that DL and AI can be effectively implemented to withstand the challenges posed by the global emergency


The future unmasked: how healthcare professionals will work differently in 2025 - Thoughts from the Centre

#artificialintelligence

Last week, we published the first two of our ten predictions in our report, 'The future unmasked: Predicting the future of healthcare and life sciences in 2025'. This week, we launch predictions three and four, 'Clinicians are empowered by new diagnostic and treatment paradigms' and'The who, what and where of work re-architected'. This week's blog provides an overview of predictions three and four. How COVID-19 is changing healthcare professional's ways of working In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare providers reorganised their staff and services and provided bespoke training to enable new ways of working. They also introduced new levels of physical and mental health and wellbeing support their staff all while attempting to deliver safe care to patients.


Artificial Intelligence Decision Support for Medical Triage

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Applying state-of-the-art machine learning and natural language processing on approximately one million of teleconsultation records, we developed a triage system, now certified and in use at the largest European telemedicine provider. The system evaluates care alternatives through interactions with patients via a mobile application. Reasoning on an initial set of provided symptoms, the triage application generates AIpowered, personalized questions to better characterize the problem and recommends the most appropriate point of care and time frame for a consultation. The underlying technology was developed to meet the needs for performance, transparency, user acceptance and ease of use, central aspects to the adoption of AIbased decision support systems. Providing such remote guidance at the beginning of the chain of care has significant potential for improving cost efficiency, patient experience and outcomes. Being remote, always available and highly scalable, this service is fundamental in high demand situations, such as the current COVID-19 outbreak. Introduction Shortage of physicians and increasing healthcare costs have created a need for digital solutions to better optimize medical resources. In addition, patient expectations for mobile, fast and easy 24/7 access to doctors and health services drive the development of patient-centered solutions.


The State of AI Ethics Report (October 2020)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The 2nd edition of the Montreal AI Ethics Institute's The State of AI Ethics captures the most relevant developments in the field of AI Ethics since July 2020. This report aims to help anyone, from machine learning experts to human rights activists and policymakers, quickly digest and understand the ever-changing developments in the field. Through research and article summaries, as well as expert commentary, this report distills the research and reporting surrounding various domains related to the ethics of AI, including: AI and society, bias and algorithmic justice, disinformation, humans and AI, labor impacts, privacy, risk, and future of AI ethics. In addition, The State of AI Ethics includes exclusive content written by world-class AI Ethics experts from universities, research institutes, consulting firms, and governments. These experts include: Danit Gal (Tech Advisor, United Nations), Amba Kak (Director of Global Policy and Programs, NYU's AI Now Institute), Rumman Chowdhury (Global Lead for Responsible AI, Accenture), Brent Barron (Director of Strategic Projects and Knowledge Management, CIFAR), Adam Murray (U.S. Diplomat working on tech policy, Chair of the OECD Network on AI), Thomas Kochan (Professor, MIT Sloan School of Management), and Katya Klinova (AI and Economy Program Lead, Partnership on AI). This report should be used not only as a point of reference and insight on the latest thinking in the field of AI Ethics, but should also be used as a tool for introspection as we aim to foster a more nuanced conversation regarding the impacts of AI on the world.