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Infections and Infectious Diseases


How far are we from achieving true AGI? – Valentino Zocca

#artificialintelligence

AGI solutions are being continuously investigated, though the current most promising mainstream technology, neural networks, while contributing to some extraordinary results, are still running short of achieving them. This criticism is not new, and, most recently Gary Marcus, in "Deep Learning: A Critical Appraisal", arXiv:1801.00631v1, has outlined many issues with current deep learning architectures, in particular their inability to'understand' the information they manipulate and their ability to mostly work in a'stable' world. As Marcus states in his article: 'The logic of deep learning is such that it is likely to work best in highly stable worlds, like the board game Go, which has unvarying rules, and less well in systems such as politics and economics that are constantly changing. To the extent that deep learning is applied in tasks such as stock prediction, there is a good chance that it will eventually face the fate of Google Flu Trends, which initially did a great job of predicting epidemological [sic] data on search trends, only to complete [sic] miss things like the peak of the 2013 flu season (Lazer, Kennedy, King & Vespignani, 2014)'. Even one of the so called'fathers' of Deep Learning architectures, Geoffrey Hinton, has recently voiced his concerns that deep learning needs to start over.


Machine Learning System Predicts Severe COVID-19 - AI Summary

#artificialintelligence

The prognostic tool, known as the Severe COVID-19 Adaptive Risk Predictor (SCARP), offers findings in an easily understandable form and can help define the one-day and seven-day risk of a patient hospitalized with COVID-19 developing a more severe form of the disease or dying from it. "SCARP was designed to provide clinicians with a predictive tool that is interactive and adaptive, enabling real-time clinical variables to be entered at a patient's bedside," says senior author Matthew Robinson, assistant professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "By yielding a personalized clinical prediction of developing severe disease or death in the next day and week, and at any point in the first two weeks of hospitalization, SCARP will enable a medical team to make more informed decisions about how best to treat each patient with COVID-19." Unlike past clinical prediction methods that base a patient's risk score on their condition at the time they enter the hospital, RF-SLAM adapts to the latest available patient information and considers the changes in those measurements over time. To demonstrate SCARP's ability to predict severe COVID-19 cases or deaths from the disease, Robinson and his colleagues used a clinical registry with data about patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between March and December 2020, at five centers within the Johns Hopkins Health System.


Restructuring Health Care with Machine Learning!

#artificialintelligence

One of the major problems we are facing today is that sometimes we fail to detect dangerous diseases in their early stages, which further led to death or disability. We don't have a proper health record, so every time we visit a new doctor, we have to tell him/her everything about our health history. Apart from this many more challenges we are facing in today's world. And as the COVID-19 pandemic hit the world in 2020, the entire world gets exposed in the case of health care facilities and management. The pandemic indirectly taught us how important AI and ML are in the healthcare sector.


Artificial intelligence

#artificialintelligence

Deep learning[133] uses several layers of neurons between the network's inputs and outputs. The multiple layers can progressively extract higher-level features from the raw input. For example, in image processing, lower layers may identify edges, while higher layers may identify the concepts relevant to a human such as digits or letters or faces.[134] Deep learning has drastically improved the performance of programs in many important subfields of artificial intelligence, including computer vision, speech recognition, image classification[135] and others. Deep learning often uses convolutional neural networks for many or all of its layers.


Wearable activity trackers combined with AI may aid in early identification of COVID-19

#artificialintelligence

Wearable activity trackers that monitor changes in skin temperature and heart and breathing rates, combined with artificial intelligence (AI), might be used to pick up COVID-19 infection days before symptoms start, suggests preliminary research published in the open access journal BMJ Open. The researchers base their findings on wearers of the AVA bracelet, a regulated and commercially available fertility tracker that monitors breathing rate, heart rate, heart rate variability, wrist skin temperature and blood flow, as well as sleep quantity and quality. Typical COVID-19 symptoms may take several days after infection before they appear during which time an infected person can unwittingly spread the virus. Attention has started to focus on the potential of activity trackers and smartwatches to detect all stages of COVID-19 infection in the body from incubation to recovery, with the aim of facilitating early isolation and testing of those with the infection. The researchers therefore wanted to see if physiological changes, monitored by an activity tracker, could be used to develop a machine learning algorithm to detect COVID-19 infection before the start of symptoms. Participants (1163 all under the age of 51) were drawn from the GAPP study between March 2020 and April 2021.


Healthcare AI in a year: 3 trends to watch

#artificialintelligence

Between the COVID-19 pandemic, a mental health crisis, rising healthcare costs, and aging populations, industry leaders are rushing to develop healthcare-specific artificial intelligence (AI) applications. One signal comes from the venture capital market: over 40 startups have raised significant funding--$20M or more --to build AI solutions for the industry. But how is AI actually being put to use in healthcare? The "2022 AI in Healthcare Survey" queried more than 300 respondents from across the globe to better understand the challenges, triumphs, and use cases defining healthcare AI. In its second year, the results did not change significantly, but they do point to some interesting trends foreshadowing how the pendulum will swing in years to come.


Epicasting: An Ensemble Wavelet Neural Network (EWNet) for Forecasting Epidemics

#artificialintelligence

Infectious diseases remain among the top contributors to human illness and death worldwide, among which many diseases produce epidemic waves of infection. The unavailability of specific drugs and ready-to-use vaccines to prevent most of these epidemics makes the situation worse. These force public health officials, health care providers, and policymakers to rely on early warning systems generated by reliable and accurate forecasts of epidemics. Accurate forecasts of epidemics can assist stakeholders in tailoring countermeasures, such as vaccination campaigns, staff scheduling, and resource allocation, to the situation at hand, which could translate to reductions in the impact of a disease. Unfortunately, most of these past epidemics (e.g., dengue, malaria, hepatitis, influenza, and most recent, Covid-19) exhibit nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics due to their spreading fluctuations based on seasonal-dependent variability and the nature of these epidemics.


Amazon's Alexa could turn dead loved ones into digital assistant

The Guardian

Amazon plans to let people turn their dead loved ones' voices into digital assistants, with the company promising the ability to "make the memories last". The company is developing technology that will allow its Alexa digital assistant to mimic the voice of anyone it hears from less than a minute of provided audio, Rohit Prasad, its senior vice-president and head scientist, said on Wednesday. He added that during the coronavirus paramedic "so many of us have lost someone we love". While no timescale was given for the launch of the feature, the underlying technology has existed for several years. The company gave a demonstration where the reanimated voice of an older woman was used to read her grandson a bedtime story, after he asked Alexa: "Can grandma finish reading me the Wizard of Oz?" Prasad said: "The way we made it happen is by framing the problem as a voice conversion task and not a speech generation path."


Top Tiny Healthcare Robots that Are Reaching Where Doctors Can't

#artificialintelligence

Do you believe you'd put your life in the hands of a robotic surgeon? What is the state of your mental health right now? While the idea of a robot doing surgery or comforting somebody during a stressful moment may be unnerving to some, it is becoming increasingly common in the field of healthcare, where medical robot interest is growing. For a variety of reasons, medical robots are being created for use in healthcare. Robots are now used not only in the operating room but also in clinical settings to support healthcare workers and enhance patient care.


Wearable activity trackers + AI might be used to pick up presymptomatic

#artificialintelligence

Wearable activity trackers that monitor changes in skin temperature and heart and breathing rates, combined with artificial intelligence (AI), might be used to pick up COVID-19 infection days before symptoms start, suggests preliminary research published in the open access journal BMJ Open. The researchers base their findings on wearers of the AVA bracelet, a regulated and commercially available fertility tracker that monitors breathing rate, heart rate, heart rate variability, wrist skin temperature and blood flow, as well as sleep quantity and quality. Typical COVID-19 symptoms may take several days after infection before they appear during which time an infected person can unwittingly spread the virus. Attention has started to focus on the potential of activity trackers and smartwatches to detect all stages of COVID-19 infection in the body from incubation to recovery, with the aim of facilitating early isolation and testing of those with the infection. The researchers therefore wanted to see if physiological changes, monitored by an activity tracker, could be used to develop a machine learning algorithm to detect COVID-19 infection before the start of symptoms.