One model may make a wrong prediction. But if you combine the predictions of several models into one, you can make better predictions. This concept is called ensemble learning. Ensembles are methods that combine multiple models to build more powerful models. Ensemble methods have gained huge popularity during the last decade.
Originally published on Towards AI the World's Leading AI and Technology News and Media Company. If you are building an AI-related product or service, we invite you to consider becoming an AI sponsor. At Towards AI, we help scale AI and technology startups. Let us help you unleash your technology to the masses. One model may make a wrong prediction.
Statistical analysis is increasingly confronted with complex data from general metric spaces, such as symmetric positive definite matrix-valued data and probability distribution functions.  and  establish a general paradigm of Fr\'echet regression with complex metric space valued responses and Euclidean predictors. However, their proposed local Fr\'echet regression approach involves nonparametric kernel smoothing and suffers from the curse of dimensionality. To address this issue, we in this paper propose a novel random forests weighted local Fr\'echet regression paradigm. The main mechanism of our approach relies on the adaptive kernels generated by random forests. Our first method utilizes these weights as the local average to solve the Fr\'echet mean, while the second method performs local linear Fr\'echet regression, making both methods locally adaptive. Our proposals significantly improve existing Fr\'echet regression methods. Based on the theory of infinite order U-processes and infinite order Mmn-estimator, we establish the consistency, rate of convergence, and asymptotic normality for our proposed random forests weighted Fr\'echet regression estimator, which covers the current large sample theory of random forests with Euclidean responses as a special case. Numerical studies show the superiority of our proposed two methods for Fr\'echet regression with several commonly encountered types of responses such as probability distribution functions, symmetric positive definite matrices, and sphere data. The practical merits of our proposals are also demonstrated through the application to the human mortality distribution data.
A step-by-step guide to building a Random Forest classifier in Python to predict subtypes of neural extracellular spikes using a real data-set recorded from Human brain organoids. Given the heterogeneity of neurons within the human brain itself, classification tools are commonly utilised to correlate electrical activity with different cell types and/or morphologies. This is a long-standing question in Neuroscience circles, and can be considerably variable between different species, pathologies, brain regions and layers. Fortunately, with the readily increasing computational power allowing improvements in machine-learning and deep-learning algorithms, Neuroscientists are provided with the tools to dive further into asking these important questions. However, as stated by Juavinett et al., for the most part programming skills are underrepresented in the community and new resources to teach them are crucial to solving the complexity of the human brain.
Abstract--Random forests are considered one of the best out-of-the-box classification and regression algorithms due to their high level of predictive performance with relatively little tuning. Pairwise proximities can be computed from a trained random forest which measure the similarity between data points relative to the supervised task. Random forest proximities have been used in many applications including the identification of variable importance, data imputation, outlier detection, and data visualization. However, existing definitions of random forest proximities do not accurately reflect the data geometry learned by the random forest. In this paper, we introduce a novel definition of random forest proximities called Random Forest-Geometry-and Accuracy-Preserving proximities (RF-GAP). We prove that the proximity-weighted sum (regression) or majority vote (classification) using RF-GAP exactly match the out-of-bag random forest prediction, thus capturing the data geometry learned by the random forest. We empirically show that this improved geometric representation outperforms traditional random forest proximities in tasks such as data imputation and provides outlier detection and visualization results consistent with the learned data geometry. ANDOM forests  are well-known, powerful predictors comprised of an ensemble of binary recursive was first defined by Leo Breiman as the proportion of decision trees. Random forests are easily adapted for both trees in which the observations reside in the same terminal classification and regression, are trivially parallelizable, can node .
When using machine learning techniques in decision-making processes, the interpretability of the models is important. In the present paper, we adopted the Shapley additive explanation (SHAP), which is based on fair profit allocation among many stakeholders depending on their contribution, for interpreting a gradient-boosting decision tree model using hospital data. For better interpretability, we propose two novel techniques as follows: (1) a new metric of feature importance using SHAP and (2) a technique termed feature packing, which packs multiple similar features into one grouped feature to allow an easier understanding of the model without reconstruction of the model. We then compared the explanation results between the SHAP framework and existing methods. In addition, we showed how the A/G ratio works as an important prognostic factor for cerebral infarction using our hospital data and proposed techniques.
The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.
Bagging and boosting are two popular ensemble methods in machine learning (ML) that produce many individual decision trees. Due to the inherent ensemble characteristic of these methods, they typically outperform single decision trees or other ML models in predictive performance. However, numerous decision paths are generated for each decision tree, increasing the overall complexity of the model and hindering its use in domains that require trustworthy and explainable decisions, such as finance, social care, and health care. Thus, the interpretability of bagging and boosting algorithms, such as random forests and adaptive boosting, reduces as the number of decisions rises. In this paper, we propose a visual analytics tool that aims to assist users in extracting decisions from such ML models via a thorough visual inspection workflow that includes selecting a set of robust and diverse models (originating from different ensemble learning algorithms), choosing important features according to their global contribution, and deciding which decisions are essential for global explanation (or locally, for specific cases). The outcome is a final decision based on the class agreement of several models and the explored manual decisions exported by users. Finally, we evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of VisRuler via a use case, a usage scenario, and a user study.
An ensemble of decision trees is known as Random Forest. As suggested by Breiman, the strength of unstable learners and the diversity among them are the ensemble models' core strength. In this paper, we propose two approaches known as oblique and rotation double random forests. In the first approach, we propose a rotation based double random forest. In rotation based double random forests, transformation or rotation of the feature space is generated at each node. At each node different random feature subspace is chosen for evaluation, hence the transformation at each node is different. Different transformations result in better diversity among the base learners and hence, better generalization performance. With the double random forest as base learner, the data at each node is transformed via two different transformations namely, principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. In the second approach, we propose oblique double random forest. Decision trees in random forest and double random forest are univariate, and this results in the generation of axis parallel split which fails to capture the geometric structure of the data. Also, the standard random forest may not grow sufficiently large decision trees resulting in suboptimal performance. To capture the geometric properties and to grow the decision trees of sufficient depth, we propose oblique double random forest. The oblique double random forest models are multivariate decision trees. At each non-leaf node, multisurface proximal support vector machine generates the optimal plane for better generalization performance. Also, different regularization techniques (Tikhonov regularisation and axis-parallel split regularisation) are employed for tackling the small sample size problems in the decision trees of oblique double random forest.
If you've heard of "random forests" as a hot, sexy machine learning algorithm and you want to implement it, great! But if you're not sure exactly what happens in a random forest, or how random forests make their classification decisions, then read on:) We'll find that we can break down random forests into smaller, more digestible pieces. As a forest is made of trees, so a random forest is made of a bunch of randomly sampled sub-components called decision trees. So first let's try to understand what a decision tree is, and how it comes to its prediction. For now, we'll just look at classification decision trees.