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Hitting the Books: AI doctors and the dangers tiered medical care

Engadget

Healthcare is a human right, however, nobody said all coverage is created equal. Artificial intelligence and machine learning systems are already making impressive inroads into the myriad fields of medicine -- from IBM's Watson: Hospital Edition and Amazon's AI-generated medical records to machine-formulated medications and AI-enabled diagnoses. But in the excerpt below from Frank Pasquale's New Laws of Robotics we can see how the promise of faster, cheaper, and more efficient medical diagnoses generated by AI/ML systems can also serve as a double-edged sword, potentially cutting off access to cutting-edge, high quality care provided by human doctors. Excerpted from New Laws of Robotics: Defending Human Expertise in the Age of AI by Frank Pasquale, published by The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. We might once have categorized a melanoma simply as a type of skin cancer.


Sparse encoding for more-interpretable feature-selecting representations in probabilistic matrix factorization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Dimensionality reduction methods for count data are critical to a wide range of applications in medical informatics and other fields where model interpretability is paramount. For such data, hierarchical Poisson matrix factorization (HPF) and other sparse probabilistic non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) methods are considered to be interpretable generative models. They consist of sparse transformations for decoding their learned representations into predictions. However, sparsity in representation decoding does not necessarily imply sparsity in the encoding of representations from the original data features. HPF is often incorrectly interpreted in the literature as if it possesses encoder sparsity. The distinction between decoder sparsity and encoder sparsity is subtle but important. Due to the lack of encoder sparsity, HPF does not possess the column-clustering property of classical NMF -- the factor loading matrix does not sufficiently define how each factor is formed from the original features. We address this deficiency by self-consistently enforcing encoder sparsity, using a generalized additive model (GAM), thereby allowing one to relate each representation coordinate to a subset of the original data features. In doing so, the method also gains the ability to perform feature selection. We demonstrate our method on simulated data and give an example of how encoder sparsity is of practical use in a concrete application of representing inpatient comorbidities in Medicare patients.


Wound and episode level readmission risk or weeks to readmit: Why do patients get readmitted? How long does it take for a patient to get readmitted?

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The Affordable care Act of 2010 had introduced Readmission reduction program in 2012 to reduce avoidable re-admissions to control rising healthcare costs. Wound care impacts 15 of medicare beneficiaries making it one of the major contributors of medicare health care cost. Health plans have been exploring proactive health care services that can focus on preventing wound recurrences and re-admissions to control the wound care costs. With rising costs of Wound care industry, it has become of paramount importance to reduce wound recurrences & patient re-admissions. What factors are responsible for a Wound to recur which ultimately lead to hospitalization or re-admission? Is there a way to identify the patients at risk of re-admission before the occurrence using data driven analysis? Patient re-admission risk management has become critical for patients suffering from chronic wounds such as diabetic ulcers, pressure ulcers, and vascular ulcers. Understanding the risk & the factors that cause patient readmission can help care providers and patients avoid wound recurrences. Our work focuses on identifying patients who are at high risk of re-admission & determining the time period with in which a patient might get re-admitted. Frequent re-admissions add financial stress to the patient & Health plan and deteriorate the quality of life of the patient. Having this information can allow a provider to set up preventive measures that can delay, if not prevent, patients' re-admission. On a combined wound & episode-level data set of patient's wound care information, our extended autoprognosis achieves a recall of 92 and a precision of 92 for the predicting a patient's re-admission risk. For new patient class, precision and recall are as high as 91 and 98, respectively. We are also able to predict the patient's discharge event for a re-admission event to occur through our model with a MAE of 2.3 weeks.


Massachusetts suspends Boston-based coronavirus testing lab Orig3n after nearly 400 false positives

Boston Herald

The state has suspended Boston-based COVID-19 testing lab Orig3n Laboratory after it produced nearly 400 false positive results. Public health officials became aware in early August of an "unusually high positivity rate" among the lab's test results and requested that Orig3n stop testing for the virus as of Aug. 8. Specimens were sent to an independent lab to be retested as part of a state Department of Public Health investigation, and the results showed at least 383 false positives. On Aug. 27, the state Department of Public Health notified Orig3n of "three significant certification deficiencies that put patients at immediate risk of harm," according to a DPH spokeswoman. They included the failure of the lab's director to provide overall management, issues with the extraction phase of testing, and a failure to meet analytic requirements such as documenting the daily sanitizing of equipment used for coronavirus testing. A statement of deficiency was issued on Sept. 4. The lab must now respond with a written plan of correction by Sept. 14, "and if action is not taken it can face sanctions," DPH said.


EmbPred30: Assessing 30-days Readmission for Diabetic Patients using Categorical Embeddings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Diabetes is a disease-causing high level of blood sugar. In type 1 Diabetes, body doesn't produce insulin, but if injected from external sources, will use it and in type 2, the body doesn't produce as well as use insulin. It is estimated that 30.3 million people of all ages in the US are suffering from Diabetes as of 2015, out of which 7.2 million are unaware[1]. As of 2016, it is ranked seventh in the list of global causes of mortality. Diabetes can be an underlying cause for many cardiovascular diseases, retinopathy, and nephropathy leading to frequent readmission in the hospital. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services(CMS) labeled a 30-day readmission rate as a measure of healthcare quality offered by the hospital in order to provide the best inpatient care and improve the healthcare quality. Hospitals with high readmission rates will be penalized as per the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act(ACA) of 2010[2]. During the recent studies[19], it was observed that a 30-day readmission rate for patients with Diabetes ranges between 14.4%-22.7%,


Using Applied Machine Learning to Predict Healthcare Utilization Based on Socioeconomic Determinants of Care

#artificialintelligence

This study demonstrates that it is possible to generate a highly accurate model to predict inpatient and emergency department utilization using data on socioeconomic determinants of care. ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine if it is possible to risk-stratify avoidable utilization without clinical data and with limited patient-level data. Study Design: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the influences of socioeconomic determinants of health (SDH) with regard to avoidable patient-level healthcare utilization. The study investigated the ability of machine learning models to predict risk using only publicly available and purchasable SDH data. A total of 138,115 patients were analyzed from a deidentified database representing 3 health systems in the United States.


Industry News

#artificialintelligence

Find here a listing of the latest industry news in genomics, genetics, precision medicine, and beyond. Updates are provided on a monthly basis. Sign-Up for our newsletter and never miss out on the latest news and updates. As 2019 came to an end, Veritas Genetics struggled to get funding due to concerns it had previously taken money from China. It was forced to cease US operations and is in talks with potential buyers. The GenomeAsia 100K Project announced its pilot phase with hopes to tackle the underrepresentation of non-Europeans in human genetic studies and enable genetic discoveries across Asia. Veritas Genetics, the start-up that can sequence a human genome for less than $600, ceases US operations and is in talks with potential buyers Veritas Genetics ceases US operations but will continue Veritas Europe and Latin America. It had trouble raising funding due to previous China investments and is looking to be acquired. Illumina loses DNA sequencing patents The European Patent ...


Evolutionary Clustering via Message Passing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We are often interested in clustering objects that evolve over time and identifying solutions to the clustering problem for every time step. Evolutionary clustering provides insight into cluster evolution and temporal changes in cluster memberships while enabling performance superior to that achieved by independently clustering data collected at different time points. In this paper we introduce evolutionary affinity propagation (EAP), an evolutionary clustering algorithm that groups data points by exchanging messages on a factor graph. EAP promotes temporal smoothness of the solution to clustering time-evolving data by linking the nodes of the factor graph that are associated with adjacent data snapshots, and introduces consensus nodes to enable cluster tracking and identification of cluster births and deaths. Unlike existing evolutionary clustering methods that require additional processing to approximate the number of clusters or match them across time, EAP determines the number of clusters and tracks them automatically. A comparison with existing methods on simulated and experimental data demonstrates effectiveness of the proposed EAP algorithm.


Today initial diagnosis comes with high levels of accuracy: Dr. John Danaher - ET HealthWorld

#artificialintelligence

Shahid Akhter, editor, ETHealthworld spoke to Dr. John Danaher, President, Clinical Solutions, Elsevier, to know what role artificial intelligence plays in healthcare and how Elsevier plans to improve diagnostic outcomes by way of AI and machine learning. Clinical errors and role of AI and health analytics There are three examples. The first one is making an initial diagnosis. What can be achieved with artificial intelligence, machine learning and actual language processing is the ability to assist doctors to make more accurate initial diagnosis. Second is the work being done in the area of image recognition with radiology and pathology.


AI In Healthcare: Fact Or Fiction?

#artificialintelligence

With the lag of tech in healthcare, will AI/ML improve patient care or remain a smart idea? Technology experts have promised artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) will revolutionize healthcare. Applications have the potential to streamline workflows and reduce human errors, speeding drug discovery, assisting surgery, and provisioning better billing and coding methods. But, in an industry that typically lags in digital maturity by as much as 10 years, according to a 2017 study, is AI in healthcare an empty promise or truly a forward-thinking and innovative reality? Technology experts have promised artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) will revolutionize healthcare.