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When to use Bayesian

#artificialintelligence

Bayesian statistics is all about belief. We have some prior belief about the true model, and we combine that with the likelihood of our data to get our posterior belief about the true model. In some cases, we have knowledge about our domain before we see any of the data. Bayesian inference provides a straightforward way to encode that belief into a prior probability distribution. For example, say I am an economist predicting the effects of interest rates on tech stock price changes.


Forecasting: theory and practice

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.


Deep Learning Interviews: Hundreds of fully solved job interview questions from a wide range of key topics in AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The second edition of Deep Learning Interviews is home to hundreds of fully-solved problems, from a wide range of key topics in AI. It is designed to both rehearse interview or exam specific topics and provide machine learning MSc / PhD. students, and those awaiting an interview a well-organized overview of the field. The problems it poses are tough enough to cut your teeth on and to dramatically improve your skills-but they're framed within thought-provoking questions and engaging stories. That is what makes the volume so specifically valuable to students and job seekers: it provides them with the ability to speak confidently and quickly on any relevant topic, to answer technical questions clearly and correctly, and to fully understand the purpose and meaning of interview questions and answers. Those are powerful, indispensable advantages to have when walking into the interview room. The book's contents is a large inventory of numerous topics relevant to DL job interviews and graduate level exams. That places this work at the forefront of the growing trend in science to teach a core set of practical mathematical and computational skills. It is widely accepted that the training of every computer scientist must include the fundamental theorems of ML, and AI appears in the curriculum of nearly every university. This volume is designed as an excellent reference for graduates of such programs.


Deep Reinforcement Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep reinforcement learning has gathered much attention recently. Impressive results were achieved in activities as diverse as autonomous driving, game playing, molecular recombination, and robotics. In all these fields, computer programs have taught themselves to solve difficult problems. They have learned to fly model helicopters and perform aerobatic manoeuvers such as loops and rolls. In some applications they have even become better than the best humans, such as in Atari, Go, poker and StarCraft. The way in which deep reinforcement learning explores complex environments reminds us of how children learn, by playfully trying out things, getting feedback, and trying again. The computer seems to truly possess aspects of human learning; this goes to the heart of the dream of artificial intelligence. The successes in research have not gone unnoticed by educators, and universities have started to offer courses on the subject. The aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of the field of deep reinforcement learning. The book is written for graduate students of artificial intelligence, and for researchers and practitioners who wish to better understand deep reinforcement learning methods and their challenges. We assume an undergraduate-level of understanding of computer science and artificial intelligence; the programming language of this book is Python. We describe the foundations, the algorithms and the applications of deep reinforcement learning. We cover the established model-free and model-based methods that form the basis of the field. Developments go quickly, and we also cover advanced topics: deep multi-agent reinforcement learning, deep hierarchical reinforcement learning, and deep meta learning.


Simulation Intelligence: Towards a New Generation of Scientific Methods

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The original "Seven Motifs" set forth a roadmap of essential methods for the field of scientific computing, where a motif is an algorithmic method that captures a pattern of computation and data movement. We present the "Nine Motifs of Simulation Intelligence", a roadmap for the development and integration of the essential algorithms necessary for a merger of scientific computing, scientific simulation, and artificial intelligence. We call this merger simulation intelligence (SI), for short. We argue the motifs of simulation intelligence are interconnected and interdependent, much like the components within the layers of an operating system. Using this metaphor, we explore the nature of each layer of the simulation intelligence operating system stack (SI-stack) and the motifs therein: (1) Multi-physics and multi-scale modeling; (2) Surrogate modeling and emulation; (3) Simulation-based inference; (4) Causal modeling and inference; (5) Agent-based modeling; (6) Probabilistic programming; (7) Differentiable programming; (8) Open-ended optimization; (9) Machine programming. We believe coordinated efforts between motifs offers immense opportunity to accelerate scientific discovery, from solving inverse problems in synthetic biology and climate science, to directing nuclear energy experiments and predicting emergent behavior in socioeconomic settings. We elaborate on each layer of the SI-stack, detailing the state-of-art methods, presenting examples to highlight challenges and opportunities, and advocating for specific ways to advance the motifs and the synergies from their combinations. Advancing and integrating these technologies can enable a robust and efficient hypothesis-simulation-analysis type of scientific method, which we introduce with several use-cases for human-machine teaming and automated science.


State-space deep Gaussian processes with applications

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This thesis is mainly concerned with state-space approaches for solving deep (temporal) Gaussian process (DGP) regression problems. More specifically, we represent DGPs as hierarchically composed systems of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), and we consequently solve the DGP regression problem by using state-space filtering and smoothing methods. The resulting state-space DGP (SS-DGP) models generate a rich class of priors compatible with modelling a number of irregular signals/functions. Moreover, due to their Markovian structure, SS-DGPs regression problems can be solved efficiently by using Bayesian filtering and smoothing methods. The second contribution of this thesis is that we solve continuous-discrete Gaussian filtering and smoothing problems by using the Taylor moment expansion (TME) method. This induces a class of filters and smoothers that can be asymptotically exact in predicting the mean and covariance of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) solutions. Moreover, the TME method and TME filters and smoothers are compatible with simulating SS-DGPs and solving their regression problems. Lastly, this thesis features a number of applications of state-space (deep) GPs. These applications mainly include, (i) estimation of unknown drift functions of SDEs from partially observed trajectories and (ii) estimation of spectro-temporal features of signals.


Contextual Bayesian optimization with binary outputs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Bayesian optimization (BO) is an efficient method to optimize expensive black-box functions. It has been generalized to scenarios where objective function evaluations return stochastic binary feedback, such as success/failure in a given test, or preference between different parameter settings. In many real-world situations, the objective function can be evaluated in controlled 'contexts' or 'environments' that directly influence the observations. For example, one could directly alter the 'difficulty' of the test that is used to evaluate a system's performance. With binary feedback, the context determines the information obtained from each observation. For example, if the test is too easy/hard, the system will always succeed/fail, yielding uninformative binary outputs. Here we combine ideas from Bayesian active learning and optimization to efficiently choose the best context and optimization parameter on each iteration. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm and illustrate how it can be used to tackle a concrete application in visual psychophysics: efficiently improving patients' vision via corrective lenses, using psychophysics measurements.


Bayesian logistic regression for online recalibration and revision of risk prediction models with performance guarantees

arXiv.org Machine Learning

After deploying a clinical prediction model, subsequently collected data can be used to fine-tune its predictions and adapt to temporal shifts. Because model updating carries risks of over-updating/fitting, we study online methods with performance guarantees. We introduce two procedures for continual recalibration or revision of an underlying prediction model: Bayesian logistic regression (BLR) and a Markov variant that explicitly models distribution shifts (MarBLR). We perform empirical evaluation via simulations and a real-world study predicting COPD risk. We derive "Type I and II" regret bounds, which guarantee the procedures are non-inferior to a static model and competitive with an oracle logistic reviser in terms of the average loss. Both procedures consistently outperformed the static model and other online logistic revision methods. In simulations, the average estimated calibration index (aECI) of the original model was 0.828 (95%CI 0.818-0.938). Online recalibration using BLR and MarBLR improved the aECI, attaining 0.265 (95%CI 0.230-0.300) and 0.241 (95%CI 0.216-0.266), respectively. When performing more extensive logistic model revisions, BLR and MarBLR increased the average AUC (aAUC) from 0.767 (95%CI 0.765-0.769) to 0.800 (95%CI 0.798-0.802) and 0.799 (95%CI 0.797-0.801), respectively, in stationary settings and protected against substantial model decay. In the COPD study, BLR and MarBLR dynamically combined the original model with a continually-refitted gradient boosted tree to achieve aAUCs of 0.924 (95%CI 0.913-0.935) and 0.925 (95%CI 0.914-0.935), compared to the static model's aAUC of 0.904 (95%CI 0.892-0.916). Despite its simplicity, BLR is highly competitive with MarBLR. MarBLR outperforms BLR when its prior better reflects the data. BLR and MarBLR can improve the transportability of clinical prediction models and maintain their performance over time.


Noisy Channel Language Model Prompting for Few-Shot Text Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce a noisy channel approach for language model prompting in few-shot text classification. Instead of computing the likelihood of the label given the input (referred as direct models), channel models compute the conditional probability of the input given the label, and are thereby required to explain every word in the input. We use channel models for recently proposed few-shot learning methods with no or very limited updates to the language model parameters, via either in-context demonstration or prompt tuning. Our experiments show that, for both methods, channel models significantly outperform their direct counterparts, which we attribute to their stability, i.e., lower variance and higher worst-case accuracy. We also present extensive ablations that provide recommendations for when to use channel prompt tuning instead of other competitive models (e.g., direct head tuning): channel prompt tuning is preferred when the number of training examples is small, labels in the training data are imbalanced, or generalization to unseen labels is required.


A Survey of Uncertainty in Deep Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Due to their increasing spread, confidence in neural network predictions became more and more important. However, basic neural networks do not deliver certainty estimates or suffer from over or under confidence. Many researchers have been working on understanding and quantifying uncertainty in a neural network's prediction. As a result, different types and sources of uncertainty have been identified and a variety of approaches to measure and quantify uncertainty in neural networks have been proposed. This work gives a comprehensive overview of uncertainty estimation in neural networks, reviews recent advances in the field, highlights current challenges, and identifies potential research opportunities. It is intended to give anyone interested in uncertainty estimation in neural networks a broad overview and introduction, without presupposing prior knowledge in this field. A comprehensive introduction to the most crucial sources of uncertainty is given and their separation into reducible model uncertainty and not reducible data uncertainty is presented. The modeling of these uncertainties based on deterministic neural networks, Bayesian neural networks, ensemble of neural networks, and test-time data augmentation approaches is introduced and different branches of these fields as well as the latest developments are discussed. For a practical application, we discuss different measures of uncertainty, approaches for the calibration of neural networks and give an overview of existing baselines and implementations. Different examples from the wide spectrum of challenges in different fields give an idea of the needs and challenges regarding uncertainties in practical applications. Additionally, the practical limitations of current methods for mission- and safety-critical real world applications are discussed and an outlook on the next steps towards a broader usage of such methods is given.