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Negative Selection Algorithm Research and Applications in the last decade: A Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The Negative selection Algorithm (NSA) is one of the important methods in the field of Immunological Computation (or Artificial Immune Systems). Over the years, some progress was made which turns this algorithm (NSA) into an efficient approach to solve problems in different domain. This review takes into account these signs of progress during the last decade and categorizes those based on different characteristics and performances. Our study shows that NSA's evolution can be labeled in four ways highlighting the most notable NSA variations and their limitations in different application domains. We also present alternative approaches to NSA for comparison and analysis. It is evident that NSA performs better for nonlinear representation than most of the other methods, and it can outperform neural-based models in computation time. We summarize NSA's development and highlight challenges in NSA research in comparison with other similar models.


Hybrid stacked ensemble combined with genetic algorithms for Prediction of Diabetes

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Diabetes is currently one of the most common, dangerous, and costly diseases in the world that is caused by an increase in blood sugar or a decrease in insulin in the body. Diabetes can have detrimental effects on people's health if diagnosed late. Today, diabetes has become one of the challenges for health and government officials. Prevention is a priority, and taking care of people's health without compromising their comfort is an essential need. In this study, the Ensemble training methodology based on genetic algorithms are used to accurately diagnose and predict the outcomes of diabetes mellitus. In this study, we use the experimental data, real data on Indian diabetics on the University of California website. Current developments in ICT, such as the Internet of Things, machine learning, and data mining, allow us to provide health strategies with more intelligent capabilities to accurately predict the outcomes of the disease in daily life and the hospital and prevent the progression of this disease and it's many complications. The results show the high performance of the proposed method in diagnosing the disease, which has reached 98.8%, and 99% accuracy in this study.


AutonoML: Towards an Integrated Framework for Autonomous Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Over the last decade, the long-running endeavour to automate high-level processes in machine learning (ML) has risen to mainstream prominence, stimulated by advances in optimisation techniques and their impact on selecting ML models/algorithms. Central to this drive is the appeal of engineering a computational system that both discovers and deploys high-performance solutions to arbitrary ML problems with minimal human interaction. Beyond this, an even loftier goal is the pursuit of autonomy, which describes the capability of the system to independently adjust an ML solution over a lifetime of changing contexts. However, these ambitions are unlikely to be achieved in a robust manner without the broader synthesis of various mechanisms and theoretical frameworks, which, at the present time, remain scattered across numerous research threads. Accordingly, this review seeks to motivate a more expansive perspective on what constitutes an automated/autonomous ML system, alongside consideration of how best to consolidate those elements. In doing so, we survey developments in the following research areas: hyperparameter optimisation, multi-component models, neural architecture search, automated feature engineering, meta-learning, multi-level ensembling, dynamic adaptation, multi-objective evaluation, resource constraints, flexible user involvement, and the principles of generalisation. We also develop a conceptual framework throughout the review, augmented by each topic, to illustrate one possible way of fusing high-level mechanisms into an autonomous ML system. Ultimately, we conclude that the notion of architectural integration deserves more discussion, without which the field of automated ML risks stifling both its technical advantages and general uptake.


Machine learning for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is commonly based on medical observations and assessment of clinical signs, including the characterization of a variety of motor symptoms. However, traditional diagnostic approaches may suffer from subjectivity as they rely on the evaluation of movements that are sometimes subtle to human eyes and therefore difficult to classify, leading to possible misclassification. In the meantime, early non-motor symptoms of PD may be mild and can be caused by many other conditions. Therefore, these symptoms are often overlooked, making diagnosis of PD at an early stage challenging. To address these difficulties and to refine the diagnosis and assessment procedures of PD, machine learning methods have been implemented for the classification of PD and healthy controls or patients with similar clinical presentations (e.g., movement disorders or other Parkinsonian syndromes). To provide a comprehensive overview of data modalities and machine learning methods that have been used in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PD, in this study, we conducted a systematic literature review of studies published until February 14, 2020, using the PubMed and IEEE Xplore databases. A total of 209 studies were included, extracted for relevant information and presented in this systematic review, with an investigation of their aims, sources of data, types of data, machine learning methods and associated outcomes. These studies demonstrate a high potential for adaptation of machine learning methods and novel biomarkers in clinical decision making, leading to increasingly systematic, informed diagnosis of PD.


Explainable Artificial Intelligence: a Systematic Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This has led to the development of a plethora of domain-dependent and context-specific methods for dealing with the interpretation of machine learning (ML) models and the formation of explanations for humans. Unfortunately, this trend is far from being over, with an abundance of knowledge in the field which is scattered and needs organisation. The goal of this article is to systematically review research works in the field of XAI and to try to define some boundaries in the field. From several hundreds of research articles focused on the concept of explainability, about 350 have been considered for review by using the following search methodology. In a first phase, Google Scholar was queried to find papers related to "explainable artificial intelligence", "explainable machine learning" and "interpretable machine learning". Subsequently, the bibliographic section of these articles was thoroughly examined to retrieve further relevant scientific studies. The first noticeable thing, as shown in figure 2 (a), is the distribution of the publication dates of selected research articles: sporadic in the 70s and 80s, receiving preliminary attention in the 90s, showing raising interest in 2000 and becoming a recognised body of knowledge after 2010. The first research concerned the development of an explanation-based system and its integration in a computer program designed to help doctors make diagnoses [3]. Some of the more recent papers focus on work devoted to the clustering of methods for explainability, motivating the need for organising the XAI literature [4, 5, 6].


Adversarial Examples in Modern Machine Learning: A Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent research has found that many families of machine learning models are vulnerable to adversarial examples: inputs that are specifically designed to cause the target model to produce erroneous outputs. In this survey, we focus on machine learning models in the visual domain, where methods for generating and detecting such examples have been most extensively studied. We explore a variety of adversarial attack methods that apply to image-space content, real world adversarial attacks, adversarial defenses, and the transferability property of adversarial examples. We also discuss strengths and weaknesses of various methods of adversarial attack and defense. Our aim is to provide an extensive coverage of the field, furnishing the reader with an intuitive understanding of the mechanics of adversarial attack and defense mechanisms and enlarging the community of researchers studying this fundamental set of problems.


Accuracy Improvement of Neural Network Training using Particle Swarm Optimization and its Stability Analysis for Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Supervised classification is the most active and emerging research trends in today's scenario. In this view, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques have been widely employed and growing interest to the researchers day by day. ANN training aims to find the proper setting of parameters such as weights ($\textbf{W}$) and biases ($b$) to properly classify the given data samples. The training process is formulated in an error minimization problem which consists of many local optima in the search landscape. In this paper, an enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization is proposed to minimize the error function for classifying real-life data sets. A stability analysis is performed to establish the efficiency of the proposed method for improving classification accuracy. The performance measurement such as confusion matrix, $F$-measure and convergence graph indicates the significant improvement in the classification accuracy.


A Recent Survey on the Applications of Genetic Programming in Image Processing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

During the last two decades, Genetic Programming (GP) has been largely used to tackle optimization, classification, and automatic features selection related tasks. The widespread use of GP is mainly due to its flexible and comprehensible tree-type structure. Similarly, research is also gaining momentum in the field of Image Processing (IP) because of its promising results over wide areas of applications ranging from medical IP to multispectral imaging. IP is mainly involved in applications such as computer vision, pattern recognition, image compression, storage and transmission, and medical diagnostics. This prevailing nature of images and their associated algorithm i.e complexities gave an impetus to the exploration of GP. GP has thus been used in different ways for IP since its inception. Many interesting GP techniques have been developed and employed in the field of IP. To give the research community an extensive view of these techniques, this paper presents the diverse applications of GP in IP and provides useful resources for further research. Also, comparison of different parameters used in ten different applications of IP are summarized in tabular form. Moreover, analysis of different parameters used in IP related tasks is carried-out to save the time needed in future for evaluating the parameters of GP. As more advancement is made in GP methodologies, its success in solving complex tasks not only related to IP but also in other fields will increase. Additionally, guidelines are provided for applying GP in IP related tasks, pros and cons of GP techniques are discussed, and some future directions are also set.


On Human Robot Interaction using Multiple Modes

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Today robotics is a vibrant field of research and it has tremendous application potentials not only in the area of industrial environment, battle field, construction industry and deep sea exploration but also in the household domain as a humanoid social robot. To be accepted in the household, the robots must have a higher level of intelligence and they must be capable of interacting people socially around it who is not supposed to be robot specialist. All these come under the field of human robot interaction (HRI). Our hypothesis is- "It is possible to design a multimodal human robot interaction framework, to effectively communicate with Humanoid Robots". In order to establish the above hypothesis speech and gesture have been used as a mode of interaction and throughout the thesis we validate our hypothesis by theoretical design and experimental verifications.


SMOTE for Learning from Imbalanced Data: Progress and Challenges, Marking the 15-year Anniversary

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

The Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE) preprocessing algorithm is considered "de facto" standard in the framework of learning from imbalanced data. This is due to its simplicity in the design of the procedure, as well as its robustness when applied to different type of problems. Since its publication in 2002, SMOTE has proven successful in a variety of applications from several different domains. SMOTE has also inspired several approaches to counter the issue of class imbalance, and has also significantly contributed to new supervised learning paradigms, including multilabel classification, incremental learning, semi-supervised learning, multi-instance learning, among others. It is standard benchmark for learning from imbalanced data. It is also featured in a number of different software packages - from open source to commercial. In this paper, marking the fifteen year anniversary of SMOTE, we reflect on the SMOTE journey, discuss the current state of affairs with SMOTE, its applications, and also identify the next set of challenges to extend SMOTE for Big Data problems.