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Selecting the suitable resampling strategy for imbalanced data classification regarding dataset properties

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In many application domains such as medicine, information retrieval, cybersecurity, social media, etc., datasets used for inducing classification models often have an unequal distribution of the instances of each class. This situation, known as imbalanced data classification, causes low predictive performance for the minority class examples. Thus, the prediction model is unreliable although the overall model accuracy can be acceptable. Oversampling and undersampling techniques are well-known strategies to deal with this problem by balancing the number of examples of each class. However, their effectiveness depends on several factors mainly related to data intrinsic characteristics, such as imbalance ratio, dataset size and dimensionality, overlapping between classes or borderline examples. In this work, the impact of these factors is analyzed through a comprehensive comparative study involving 40 datasets from different application areas. The objective is to obtain models for automatic selection of the best resampling strategy for any dataset based on its characteristics. These models allow us to check several factors simultaneously considering a wide range of values since they are induced from very varied datasets that cover a broad spectrum of conditions. This differs from most studies that focus on the individual analysis of the characteristics or cover a small range of values. In addition, the study encompasses both basic and advanced resampling strategies that are evaluated by means of eight different performance metrics, including new measures specifically designed for imbalanced data classification. The general nature of the proposal allows the choice of the most appropriate method regardless of the domain, avoiding the search for special purpose techniques that could be valid for the target data.


Artificial Intelligence Ethics and Safety: practical tools for creating "good" models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The AI Robotics Ethics Society (AIRES) is a non-profit organization founded in 2018 by Aaron Hui to promote awareness and the importance of ethical implementation and regulation of AI. AIRES is now an organization with chapters at universities such as UCLA (Los Angeles), USC (University of Southern California), Caltech (California Institute of Technology), Stanford University, Cornell University, Brown University, and the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). AIRES at PUCRS is the first international chapter of AIRES, and as such, we are committed to promoting and enhancing the AIRES Mission. Our mission is to focus on educating the AI leaders of tomorrow in ethical principles to ensure that AI is created ethically and responsibly. As there are still few proposals for how we should implement ethical principles and normative guidelines in the practice of AI system development, the goal of this work is to try to bridge this gap between discourse and praxis. Between abstract principles and technical implementation. In this work, we seek to introduce the reader to the topic of AI Ethics and Safety. At the same time, we present several tools to help developers of intelligent systems develop "good" models. This work is a developing guide published in English and Portuguese. Contributions and suggestions are welcome.


Artificial Intellgence -- Application in Life Sciences and Beyond. The Upper Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium UR-AI 2021

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


Trustworthy AI: From Principles to Practices

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Fast developing artificial intelligence (AI) technology has enabled various applied systems deployed in the real world, impacting people's everyday lives. However, many current AI systems were found vulnerable to imperceptible attacks, biased against underrepresented groups, lacking in user privacy protection, etc., which not only degrades user experience but erodes the society's trust in all AI systems. In this review, we strive to provide AI practitioners a comprehensive guide towards building trustworthy AI systems. We first introduce the theoretical framework of important aspects of AI trustworthiness, including robustness, generalization, explainability, transparency, reproducibility, fairness, privacy preservation, alignment with human values, and accountability. We then survey leading approaches in these aspects in the industry. To unify the current fragmented approaches towards trustworthy AI, we propose a systematic approach that considers the entire lifecycle of AI systems, ranging from data acquisition to model development, to development and deployment, finally to continuous monitoring and governance. In this framework, we offer concrete action items to practitioners and societal stakeholders (e.g., researchers and regulators) to improve AI trustworthiness. Finally, we identify key opportunities and challenges in the future development of trustworthy AI systems, where we identify the need for paradigm shift towards comprehensive trustworthy AI systems.


Deep Transfer Learning Based Intrusion Detection System for Electric Vehicular Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus works as an important protocol in the real-time In-Vehicle Network (IVN) systems for its simple, suitable, and robust architecture. The risk of IVN devices has still been insecure and vulnerable due to the complex data-intensive architectures which greatly increase the accessibility to unauthorized networks and the possibility of various types of cyberattacks. Therefore, the detection of cyberattacks in IVN devices has become a growing interest. With the rapid development of IVNs and evolving threat types, the traditional machine learning-based IDS has to update to cope with the security requirements of the current environment. Nowadays, the progression of deep learning, deep transfer learning, and its impactful outcome in several areas has guided as an effective solution for network intrusion detection. This manuscript proposes a deep transfer learning-based IDS model for IVN along with improved performance in comparison to several other existing models. The unique contributions include effective attribute selection which is best suited to identify malicious CAN messages and accurately detect the normal and abnormal activities, designing a deep transfer learning-based LeNet model, and evaluating considering real-world data. To this end, an extensive experimental performance evaluation has been conducted. The architecture along with empirical analyses shows that the proposed IDS greatly improves the detection accuracy over the mainstream machine learning, deep learning, and benchmark deep transfer learning models and has demonstrated better performance for real-time IVN security.


Fast, Accurate and Interpretable Time Series Classification Through Randomization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Time series classification (TSC) aims to predict the class label of a given time series, which is critical to a rich set of application areas such as economics and medicine. State-of-the-art TSC methods have mostly focused on classification accuracy and efficiency, without considering the interpretability of their classifications, which is an important property required by modern applications such as appliance modeling and legislation such as the European General Data Protection Regulation. To address this gap, we propose a novel TSC method - the Randomized-Supervised Time Series Forest (r-STSF). r-STSF is highly efficient, achieves state-of-the-art classification accuracy and enables interpretability. r-STSF takes an efficient interval-based approach to classify time series according to aggregate values of discriminatory sub-series (intervals). To achieve state-of-the-art accuracy, r-STSF builds an ensemble of randomized trees using the discriminatory sub-series. It uses four time series representations, nine aggregation functions and a supervised binary-inspired search combined with a feature ranking metric to identify highly discriminatory sub-series. The discriminatory sub-series enable interpretable classifications. Experiments on extensive datasets show that r-STSF achieves state-of-the-art accuracy while being orders of magnitude faster than most existing TSC methods. It is the only classifier from the state-of-the-art group that enables interpretability. Our findings also highlight that r-STSF is the best TSC method when classifying complex time series datasets.


Machine Learning Towards Intelligent Systems: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The emergence and continued reliance on the Internet and related technologies has resulted in the generation of large amounts of data that can be made available for analyses. However, humans do not possess the cognitive capabilities to understand such large amounts of data. Machine learning (ML) provides a mechanism for humans to process large amounts of data, gain insights about the behavior of the data, and make more informed decision based on the resulting analysis. ML has applications in various fields. This review focuses on some of the fields and applications such as education, healthcare, network security, banking and finance, and social media. Within these fields, there are multiple unique challenges that exist. However, ML can provide solutions to these challenges, as well as create further research opportunities. Accordingly, this work surveys some of the challenges facing the aforementioned fields and presents some of the previous literature works that tackled them. Moreover, it suggests several research opportunities that benefit from the use of ML to address these challenges.


Cyber Threat Intelligence for Secure Smart City

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Sujata238dash@gmail.com Abstract--Smart city improved the quality of life for the The rest of this paper is structured as follows. York start becoming more intelligent. These cities are providing services through technology such as IoT and Cyber-A. Smart City Physical Systems (CPS), where they are connected through a The smart city concept refers to urban systems that network to monitor, control and automate the city services to integrated with ICT to improve city services in terms of provide the best quality of life for the citizens [1]. The smart city contains a huge number of sensors Smart city technologies exchange and process different that continuously generate a tremendous amount of sensitive types of data to provide services. These data can be sensitive data such as location coordinates, credit card numbers, and and critical which imposes security and privacy requirements. These data are transmitted through the However, the characteristics of smart city technology such as network to data centers for processing and analysis to take the IoT and CPS in terms of resources limitation such as power, appropriate decisions such as managing traffic and energy in memory, and processing imposes challenges to run a smart city [6][3]. Therefore, different attacks Sensors that generate data and devices that handle the data target smart city infrastructure including Distributed Denial of in a smart city have vulnerabilities that can be exploited by Service (DDoS) using IoT devices by infecting IoT devices by cybercriminals.


Technologies for Trustworthy Machine Learning: A Survey in a Socio-Technical Context

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Concerns about the societal impact of AI-based services and systems has encouraged governments and other organisations around the world to propose AI policy frameworks to address fairness, accountability, transparency and related topics. To achieve the objectives of these frameworks, the data and software engineers who build machine-learning systems require knowledge about a variety of relevant supporting tools and techniques. In this paper we provide an overview of technologies that support building trustworthy machine learning systems, i.e., systems whose properties justify that people place trust in them. We argue that four categories of system properties are instrumental in achieving the policy objectives, namely fairness, explainability, auditability and safety & security (FEAS). We discuss how these properties need to be considered across all stages of the machine learning life cycle, from data collection through run-time model inference. As a consequence, we survey in this paper the main technologies with respect to all four of the FEAS properties, for data-centric as well as model-centric stages of the machine learning system life cycle. We conclude with an identification of open research problems, with a particular focus on the connection between trustworthy machine learning technologies and their implications for individuals and society.


A Survey of Machine Learning Methods and Challenges for Windows Malware Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Malware classification is a difficult problem, to which machine learning methods have been applied for decades. Yet progress has often been slow, in part due to a number of unique difficulties with the task that occur through all stages of the developing a machine learning system: data collection, labeling, feature creation and selection, model selection, and evaluation. In this survey we will review a number of the current methods and challenges related to malware classification, including data collection, feature extraction, and model construction, and evaluation. Our discussion will include thoughts on the constraints that must be considered for machine learning based solutions in this domain, and yet to be tackled problems for which machine learning could also provide a solution. This survey aims to be useful both to cybersecurity practitioners who wish to learn more about how machine learning can be applied to the malware problem, and to give data scientists the necessary background into the challenges in this uniquely complicated space.