Financial regulators across Europe continue to levy steep enforcement fines against banks for failures to comply with know-your-customer (KYC) and anti-money laundering (AML) regulations. At the end of 2021, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) fined two of the UK's largest banks, HSBC and NatWest, a total of £328.95 million ($436.1 million) for failings in their money laundering processes. Meanwhile, members of the European Parliament are calling for cryptocurrencies to be governed by the European Commission's Anti-Money Laundering Authority, as illicit organisations continue to find new methods for laundering money through the financial system. Money laundering is a process that criminals use to hide the illegal source of their funds. By passing money through multiple, sometimes complex, transfers and transactions, the money is "cleaned" of its illegitimate origin and made to appear as legitimate business profits.
This report from the Montreal AI Ethics Institute (MAIEI) covers the most salient progress in research and reporting over the second half of 2021 in the field of AI ethics. Particular emphasis is placed on an "Analysis of the AI Ecosystem", "Privacy", "Bias", "Social Media and Problematic Information", "AI Design and Governance", "Laws and Regulations", "Trends", and other areas covered in the "Outside the Boxes" section. The two AI spotlights feature application pieces on "Constructing and Deconstructing Gender with AI-Generated Art" as well as "Will an Artificial Intellichef be Cooking Your Next Meal at a Michelin Star Restaurant?". Given MAIEI's mission to democratize AI, submissions from external collaborators have featured, such as pieces on the "Challenges of AI Development in Vietnam: Funding, Talent and Ethics" and using "Representation and Imagination for Preventing AI Harms". The report is a comprehensive overview of what the key issues in the field of AI ethics were in 2021, what trends are emergent, what gaps exist, and a peek into what to expect from the field of AI ethics in 2022. It is a resource for researchers and practitioners alike in the field to set their research and development agendas to make contributions to the field of AI ethics.
This paper presents a comprehensive review of methods covering significant subjective and objective human stress detection techniques available in the literature. The methods for measuring human stress responses could include subjective questionnaires (developed by psychologists) and objective markers observed using data from wearable and non-wearable sensors. In particular, wearable sensor-based methods commonly use data from electroencephalography, electrocardiogram, galvanic skin response, electromyography, electrodermal activity, heart rate, heart rate variability, and photoplethysmography both individually and in multimodal fusion strategies. Whereas, methods based on non-wearable sensors include strategies such as analyzing pupil dilation and speech, smartphone data, eye movement, body posture, and thermal imaging. Whenever a stressful situation is encountered by an individual, physiological, physical, or behavioral changes are induced which help in coping with the challenge at hand. A wide range of studies has attempted to establish a relationship between these stressful situations and the response of human beings by using different kinds of psychological, physiological, physical, and behavioral measures. Inspired by the lack of availability of a definitive verdict about the relationship of human stress with these different kinds of markers, a detailed survey about human stress detection methods is conducted in this paper. In particular, we explore how stress detection methods can benefit from artificial intelligence utilizing relevant data from various sources. This review will prove to be a reference document that would provide guidelines for future research enabling effective detection of human stress conditions.
Abstract--Classifier specific (CS) and classifier agnostic (CA) feature importance methods are widely used (often interchangeably) by prior studies to derive feature importance ranks from a defect classifier. However, different feature importance methods are likely to compute different feature importance ranks even for the same dataset and classifier. Hence such interchangeable use of feature importance methods can lead to conclusion instabilities unless there is a strong agreement among different methods. Therefore, in this paper, we evaluate the agreement between the feature importance ranks associated with the studied classifiers through a case study of 18 software projects and six commonly used classifiers. We find that: 1) The computed feature importance ranks by CA and CS methods do not always strongly agree with each other. Such findings raise concerns about the stability of conclusions across replicated studies. We further observe that the commonly used defect datasets are rife with feature interactions and these feature interactions impact the computed feature importance ranks of the CS methods (not the CA methods). We demonstrate that removing these feature interactions, even with simple methods like CFS improves agreement between the computed feature importance ranks of CA and CS methods. In light of our findings, we provide guidelines for stakeholders and practitioners when performing model interpretation and directions for future research, e.g., future research is needed to investigate the impact of advanced feature interaction removal methods on computed feature importance ranks of different CS methods. We note, however, that a CS method is not always readily available for Defect classifiers are widely used by many large software corporations a given classifier. Defect classifiers are commonly and deep neural networks do not have a widely accepted CS interpreted to uncover insights to improve software quality. Therefore it is the feature importance ranks of different classifiers is pivotal that these generated insights are reliable. Such CA methods measure the contribution of each feature a feature importance method to compute a ranking of feature towards a classifier's predictions. These measure the contribution of each feature by effecting changes to feature importance ranks reflect the order in which the studied that particular feature in the dataset and observing its impact on features contribute to the predictive capability of the studied the outcome. The primary advantage of CA methods is that they classifier .
Driving safety analysis has recently witnessed unprecedented results due to advances in computation frameworks, connected vehicle technology, new generation sensors, and artificial intelligence (AI). Particularly, the recent advances performance of deep learning (DL) methods realized higher levels of safety for autonomous vehicles and empowered volume imagery processing for driving safety analysis. An important application of DL methods is extracting driving safety metrics from traffic imagery. However, the majority of current methods use safety metrics for micro-scale analysis of individual crash incidents or near-crash events, which does not provide insightful guidelines for the overall network-level traffic management. On the other hand, large-scale safety assessment efforts mainly emphasize spatial and temporal distributions of crashes, while not always revealing the safety violations that cause crashes. To bridge these two perspectives, we define a new set of network-level safety metrics for the overall safety assessment of traffic flow by processing imagery taken by roadside infrastructure sensors. An integrative analysis of the safety metrics and crash data reveals the insightful temporal and spatial correlation between the representative network-level safety metrics and the crash frequency. The analysis is performed using two video cameras in the state of Arizona along with a 5-year crash report obtained from the Arizona Department of Transportation. The results confirm that network-level safety metrics can be used by the traffic management teams to equip traffic monitoring systems with advanced AI-based risk analysis, and timely traffic flow control decisions.
Facial images disclose many hidden personal traits such as age, gender, race, health, emotion, and psychology. Understanding these traits will help to classify the people in different attributes. In this paper, we have presented a novel method for classifying images using a pretrained transformer model. We apply the pretrained transformer for the binary classification of facial images in criminal and non-criminal classes. The pretrained transformer of GPT-2 is trained to generate text and then fine-tuned to classify facial images. During the finetuning process with images, most of the layers of GT-2 are frozen during backpropagation and the model is frozen pretrained transformer (FPT). The FPT acts as a universal image classifier, and this paper shows the application of FPT on facial images. We also use our FPT on encrypted images for classification. Our FPT shows high accuracy on both raw facial images and encrypted images. We hypothesize the meta-learning capacity FPT gained because of its large size and trained on a large size with theory and experiments. The GPT-2 trained to generate a single word token at a time, through the autoregressive process, forced to heavy-tail distribution. Then the FPT uses the heavy-tail property as its meta-learning capacity for classifying images. Our work shows one way to avoid bias during the machine classification of images.The FPT encodes worldly knowledge because of the pretraining of one text, which it uses during the classification. The statistical error of classification is reduced because of the added context gained from the text.Our paper shows the ethical dimension of using encrypted data for classification.Criminal images are sensitive to share across the boundary but encrypted largely evades ethical concern.FPT showing good classification accuracy on encrypted images shows promise for further research on privacy-preserving machine learning.
Adversarial examples (AEs) pose severe threats to the applications of deep neural networks (DNNs) to safety-critical domains, e.g., autonomous driving. While there has been a vast body of AE defense solutions, to the best of our knowledge, they all suffer from some weaknesses, e.g., defending against only a subset of AEs or causing a relatively high accuracy loss for legitimate inputs. Moreover, most existing solutions cannot defend against adaptive attacks, wherein attackers are knowledgeable about the defense mechanisms and craft AEs accordingly. In this paper, we propose a novel AE detection framework based on the very nature of AEs, i.e., their semantic information is inconsistent with the discriminative features extracted by the target DNN model. To be specific, the proposed solution, namely ContraNet, models such contradiction by first taking both the input and the inference result to a generator to obtain a synthetic output and then comparing it against the original input. For legitimate inputs that are correctly inferred, the synthetic output tries to reconstruct the input. On the contrary, for AEs, instead of reconstructing the input, the synthetic output would be created to conform to the wrong label whenever possible. Consequently, by measuring the distance between the input and the synthetic output with metric learning, we can differentiate AEs from legitimate inputs. We perform comprehensive evaluations under various AE attack scenarios, and experimental results show that ContraNet outperforms existing solutions by a large margin, especially under adaptive attacks. Moreover, our analysis shows that successful AEs that can bypass ContraNet tend to have much-weakened adversarial semantics. We have also shown that ContraNet can be easily combined with adversarial training techniques to achieve further improved AE defense capabilities.
Hilsa is the national fish of Bangladesh. Bangladesh is earning a lot of foreign currency by exporting this fish. Unfortunately, in recent days, some unscrupulous businessmen are selling fake Hilsa fishes to gain profit. The Sardines and Sardinella are the most sold in the market as Hilsa. The government agency of Bangladesh, namely Bangladesh Food Safety Authority said that these fake Hilsa fish contain high levels of cadmium and lead which are detrimental for humans. In this research, we have proposed a method that can readily identify original Hilsa fish and fake Hilsa fish. Based on the research available on online literature, we are the first to do research on identifying original Hilsa fish. We have collected more than 16,000 images of original and counterfeit Hilsa fish. To classify these images, we have used several deep learning-based models. Then, the performance has been compared between them. Among those models, DenseNet201 achieved the highest accuracy of 97.02%.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are threatened by adversarial examples. Adversarial detection, which distinguishes adversarial images from benign images, is fundamental for robust DNN-based services. Image transformation is one of the most effective approaches to detect adversarial examples. During the last few years, a variety of image transformations have been studied and discussed to design reliable adversarial detectors. In this paper, we systematically synthesize the recent progress on adversarial detection via image transformations with a novel classification method. Then, we conduct extensive experiments to test the detection performance of image transformations against state-of-the-art adversarial attacks. Furthermore, we reveal that each individual transformation is not capable of detecting adversarial examples in a robust way, and propose a DNN-based approach referred to as AdvJudge, which combines scores of 9 image transformations. Without knowing which individual scores are misleading or not misleading, AdvJudge can make the right judgment, and achieve a significant improvement in detection accuracy. We claim that AdvJudge is a more effective adversarial detector than those based on an individual image transformation.
Petropoulos, Fotios, Apiletti, Daniele, Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, Babai, Mohamed Zied, Barrow, Devon K., Taieb, Souhaib Ben, Bergmeir, Christoph, Bessa, Ricardo J., Bijak, Jakub, Boylan, John E., Browell, Jethro, Carnevale, Claudio, Castle, Jennifer L., Cirillo, Pasquale, Clements, Michael P., Cordeiro, Clara, Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Cyrino, De Baets, Shari, Dokumentov, Alexander, Ellison, Joanne, Fiszeder, Piotr, Franses, Philip Hans, Frazier, David T., Gilliland, Michael, Gönül, M. Sinan, Goodwin, Paul, Grossi, Luigi, Grushka-Cockayne, Yael, Guidolin, Mariangela, Guidolin, Massimo, Gunter, Ulrich, Guo, Xiaojia, Guseo, Renato, Harvey, Nigel, Hendry, David F., Hollyman, Ross, Januschowski, Tim, Jeon, Jooyoung, Jose, Victor Richmond R., Kang, Yanfei, Koehler, Anne B., Kolassa, Stephan, Kourentzes, Nikolaos, Leva, Sonia, Li, Feng, Litsiou, Konstantia, Makridakis, Spyros, Martin, Gael M., Martinez, Andrew B., Meeran, Sheik, Modis, Theodore, Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos, Önkal, Dilek, Paccagnini, Alessia, Panagiotelis, Anastasios, Panapakidis, Ioannis, Pavía, Jose M., Pedio, Manuela, Pedregal, Diego J., Pinson, Pierre, Ramos, Patrícia, Rapach, David E., Reade, J. James, Rostami-Tabar, Bahman, Rubaszek, Michał, Sermpinis, Georgios, Shang, Han Lin, Spiliotis, Evangelos, Syntetos, Aris A., Talagala, Priyanga Dilini, Talagala, Thiyanga S., Tashman, Len, Thomakos, Dimitrios, Thorarinsdottir, Thordis, Todini, Ezio, Arenas, Juan Ramón Trapero, Wang, Xiaoqian, Winkler, Robert L., Yusupova, Alisa, Ziel, Florian
Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.