Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid biomedical imaging modality based on the photoacoustic effect [6, 44, 32]. In PAT, the imaged target is illuminated with a short pulse of light. Absorption of light creates localized areas of thermal expansion, resulting in localized pressure increases within the imaged target. This pressure distribution, called the initial pressure, relaxes as broadband ultrasound waves that are measured on the boundary of the imaged target. In the inverse problem of PAT, the initial pressure distribution is estimated from a set of measured ultrasound data.
The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.
Lavin, Alexander, Zenil, Hector, Paige, Brooks, Krakauer, David, Gottschlich, Justin, Mattson, Tim, Anandkumar, Anima, Choudry, Sanjay, Rocki, Kamil, Baydin, Atılım Güneş, Prunkl, Carina, Paige, Brooks, Isayev, Olexandr, Peterson, Erik, McMahon, Peter L., Macke, Jakob, Cranmer, Kyle, Zhang, Jiaxin, Wainwright, Haruko, Hanuka, Adi, Veloso, Manuela, Assefa, Samuel, Zheng, Stephan, Pfeffer, Avi
The original "Seven Motifs" set forth a roadmap of essential methods for the field of scientific computing, where a motif is an algorithmic method that captures a pattern of computation and data movement. We present the "Nine Motifs of Simulation Intelligence", a roadmap for the development and integration of the essential algorithms necessary for a merger of scientific computing, scientific simulation, and artificial intelligence. We call this merger simulation intelligence (SI), for short. We argue the motifs of simulation intelligence are interconnected and interdependent, much like the components within the layers of an operating system. Using this metaphor, we explore the nature of each layer of the simulation intelligence operating system stack (SI-stack) and the motifs therein: (1) Multi-physics and multi-scale modeling; (2) Surrogate modeling and emulation; (3) Simulation-based inference; (4) Causal modeling and inference; (5) Agent-based modeling; (6) Probabilistic programming; (7) Differentiable programming; (8) Open-ended optimization; (9) Machine programming. We believe coordinated efforts between motifs offers immense opportunity to accelerate scientific discovery, from solving inverse problems in synthetic biology and climate science, to directing nuclear energy experiments and predicting emergent behavior in socioeconomic settings. We elaborate on each layer of the SI-stack, detailing the state-of-art methods, presenting examples to highlight challenges and opportunities, and advocating for specific ways to advance the motifs and the synergies from their combinations. Advancing and integrating these technologies can enable a robust and efficient hypothesis-simulation-analysis type of scientific method, which we introduce with several use-cases for human-machine teaming and automated science.
This dissertation shows that careful injection of noise into sample data can substantially speed up Expectation-Maximization algorithms. Expectation-Maximization algorithms are a class of iterative algorithms for extracting maximum likelihood estimates from corrupted or incomplete data. The convergence speed-up is an example of a noise benefit or "stochastic resonance" in statistical signal processing. The dissertation presents derivations of sufficient conditions for such noise-benefits and demonstrates the speed-up in some ubiquitous signal-processing algorithms. These algorithms include parameter estimation for mixture models, the $k$-means clustering algorithm, the Baum-Welch algorithm for training hidden Markov models, and backpropagation for training feedforward artificial neural networks. This dissertation also analyses the effects of data and model corruption on the more general Bayesian inference estimation framework. The main finding is a theorem guaranteeing that uniform approximators for Bayesian model functions produce uniform approximators for the posterior pdf via Bayes theorem. This result also applies to hierarchical and multidimensional Bayesian models.