Nature-inspired algorithms are commonly used for solving the various optimization problems. In past few decades, various researchers have proposed a large number of nature-inspired algorithms. Some of these algorithms have proved to be very efficient as compared to other classical optimization methods. A young researcher attempting to undertake or solve a problem using nature-inspired algorithms is bogged down by a plethora of proposals that exist today. Not every algorithm is suited for all kinds of problem. Some score over others. In this paper, an attempt has been made to summarize various leading research proposals that shall pave way for any new entrant to easily understand the journey so far. Here, we classify the nature-inspired algorithms as natural evolution based, swarm intelligence based, biological based, science based and others. In this survey, widely acknowledged nature-inspired algorithms namely- ACO, ABC, EAM, FA, FPA, GA, GSA, JAYA, PSO, SFLA, TLBO and WCA, have been studied. The purpose of this review is to present an exhaustive analysis of various nature-inspired algorithms based on its source of inspiration, basic operators, control parameters, features, variants and area of application where these algorithms have been successfully applied. It shall also assist in identifying and short listing the methodologies that are best suited for the problem.
Most of the ocean is unknown. Yet we know that the most challenging environments on the planet reside in it. Understanding the ocean in its totality is a key component for the sustainable development of human activities and for the mitigation of climate change, as proclaimed by the United Nations. We are glad to share our perspective about the role of soft robots in ocean exploration and offshore operations at the outset of the ocean decade (2021-2030). In this study of the Soft Systems Group (part of The School of Engineering at The University of Edinburgh), we focus on the two ends of the water column: the abyss and the surface.
With large-scale integration of renewable generation and ubiquitous distributed energy resources (DERs), modern power systems confront a series of new challenges in operation and control, such as growing complexity, increasing uncertainty, and aggravating volatility. While the upside is that more and more data are available owing to the widely-deployed smart meters, smart sensors, and upgraded communication networks. As a result, data-driven control techniques, especially reinforcement learning (RL), have attracted surging attention in recent years. In this paper, we focus on RL and aim to provide a tutorial on various RL techniques and how they can be applied to the decision-making and control in power systems. In particular, we select three key applications, including frequency regulation, voltage control, and energy management, for illustration, and present the typical ways to model and tackle them with RL methods. We conclude by emphasizing two critical issues in the application of RL, i.e., safety and scalability. Several potential future directions are discussed as well.
In recent years, the use of Machine Learning (ML) in computational chemistry has enabled numerous advances previously out of reach due to the computational complexity of traditional electronic-structure methods. One of the most promising applications is the construction of ML-based force fields (FFs), with the aim to narrow the gap between the accuracy of ab initio methods and the efficiency of classical FFs. The key idea is to learn the statistical relation between chemical structure and potential energy without relying on a preconceived notion of fixed chemical bonds or knowledge about the relevant interactions. Such universal ML approximations are in principle only limited by the quality and quantity of the reference data used to train them. This review gives an overview of applications of ML-FFs and the chemical insights that can be obtained from them. The core concepts underlying ML-FFs are described in detail and a step-by-step guide for constructing and testing them from scratch is given. The text concludes with a discussion of the challenges that remain to be overcome by the next generation of ML-FFs.
Civil and maritime engineering systems, among others, from bridges to offshore platforms and wind turbines, must be efficiently managed as they are exposed to deterioration mechanisms throughout their operational life, such as fatigue or corrosion. Identifying optimal inspection and maintenance policies demands the solution of a complex sequential decision-making problem under uncertainty, with the main objective of efficiently controlling the risk associated with structural failures. Addressing this complexity, risk-based inspection planning methodologies, supported often by dynamic Bayesian networks, evaluate a set of pre-defined heuristic decision rules to reasonably simplify the decision problem. However, the resulting policies may be compromised by the limited space considered in the definition of the decision rules. Avoiding this limitation, Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs) provide a principled mathematical methodology for stochastic optimal control under uncertain action outcomes and observations, in which the optimal actions are prescribed as a function of the entire, dynamically updated, state probability distribution. In this paper, we combine dynamic Bayesian networks with POMDPs in a joint framework for optimal inspection and maintenance planning, and we provide the formulation for developing both infinite and finite horizon POMDPs in a structural reliability context. The proposed methodology is implemented and tested for the case of a structural component subject to fatigue deterioration, demonstrating the capability of state-of-the-art point-based POMDP solvers for solving the underlying planning optimization problem. Within the numerical experiments, POMDP and heuristic-based policies are thoroughly compared, and results showcase that POMDPs achieve substantially lower costs as compared to their counterparts, even for traditional problem settings.
Ben Lamm is the CEO and founder of US-based advanced technology solutions provider Hypergiant. The Texan serial entrepreneur--it is his fifth company--embarked on his most ambitious enterprise to-date when he co-founded Hypergiant in 2018. Hypergiant is focused on advanced artificial intelligence (AI) for clients in a wide range of range of sectors from oil drilling and fluid dynamics to entertainment and healthcare. It has an impressive roster of industry partners: consultancies Booz Allen Hamilton and EY; applied science company Dynetics; software companies Adobe, Microsoft, AWS and SAP; and computer hardware company Nvidia. Likewise, its clients include leaders in diverse areas of the oil and gas sector including Shell, US E&P independent Marathon Oil, oilfield services company Schlumberger, conglomerate GE and marketing and trading firm Pacific Summit Energy.
Machine learning (ML) pervades an increasing number of academic disciplines and industries. Its impact is profound, and several fields have been fundamentally altered by it, autonomy and computer vision for example; reliability engineering and safety will undoubtedly follow suit. There is already a large but fragmented literature on ML for reliability and safety applications, and it can be overwhelming to navigate and integrate into a coherent whole. In this work, we facilitate this task by providing a synthesis of, and a roadmap to this ever-expanding analytical landscape and highlighting its major landmarks and pathways. We first provide an overview of the different ML categories and sub-categories or tasks, and we note several of the corresponding models and algorithms. We then look back and review the use of ML in reliability and safety applications. We examine several publications in each category/sub-category, and we include a short discussion on the use of Deep Learning to highlight its growing popularity and distinctive advantages. Finally, we look ahead and outline several promising future opportunities for leveraging ML in service of advancing reliability and safety considerations. Overall, we argue that ML is capable of providing novel insights and opportunities to solve important challenges in reliability and safety applications. It is also capable of teasing out more accurate insights from accident datasets than with traditional analysis tools, and this in turn can lead to better informed decision-making and more effective accident prevention.
Combined with complexity of a rapidly changing energy sector where digital technologies, the drive for greener energy and demand for more consumer-centric services are putting shareholder returns at risk and reconfiguring policy mandates, industry players are forced to make a significant re-evaluation of energy value chains, assets and operations. The way we produce and consume oil & gas is shifting. Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, are growing exponentially and are expected to account for nearly 70% of global electricity production in 2050. Transport is being electrified, with 50% of all new cars sold globally forecasted to be electric by 2033. Advances in digital technology are enabling these dramatic changes to our energy system and digitalization will play an important role in enabling the energy transition.
The large integration of variable energy resources is expected to shift a large part of the energy exchanges closer to real-time, where more accurate forecasts are available. In this context, the short-term electricity markets and in particular the intraday market are considered a suitable trading floor for these exchanges to occur. A key component for the successful renewable energy sources integration is the usage of energy storage. In this paper, we propose a novel modelling framework for the strategic participation of energy storage in the European continuous intraday market where exchanges occur through a centralized order book. The goal of the storage device operator is the maximization of the profits received over the entire trading horizon, while taking into account the operational constraints of the unit. The sequential decision-making problem of trading in the intraday market is modelled as a Markov Decision Process. An asynchronous distributed version of the fitted Q iteration algorithm is chosen for solving this problem due to its sample efficiency. The large and variable number of the existing orders in the order book motivates the use of high-level actions and an alternative state representation. Historical data are used for the generation of a large number of artificial trajectories in order to address exploration issues during the learning process. The resulting policy is back-tested and compared against a benchmark strategy that is the current industrial standard. Results indicate that the agent converges to a policy that achieves in average higher total revenues than the benchmark strategy.
A new variational mode decomposition (VMD) based deep learning approach is proposed in this paper for time series forecasting problem. Firstly, VMD is adopted to decompose the original time series into several sub-signals. Then, a convolutional neural network (CNN) is applied to learn the reconstruction patterns on the decomposed sub-signals to obtain several reconstructed sub-signals. Finally, a long short term memory (LSTM) network is employed to forecast the time series with the decomposed sub-signals and the reconstructed sub-signals as inputs. The proposed VMD-CNN-LSTM approach is originated from the decomposition-reconstruction-ensemble framework, and innovated by embedding the reconstruction, single forecasting, and ensemble steps in a unified deep learning approach. To verify the forecasting performance of the proposed approach, four typical time series datasets are introduced for empirical analysis. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms consistently the benchmark approaches in terms of forecasting accuracy, and also indicate that the reconstructed sub-signals obtained by CNN is of importance for further improving the forecasting performance.