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Adversarial Robustness Toolbox v1.2 releases: crafting and analysis of attacks and defense methods for machine learning models • Penetration Testing

#artificialintelligence

Adversarial Robustness 360 Toolbox (ART) is a Python library supporting developers and researchers in defending Machine Learning models (Deep Neural Networks, Gradient Boosted Decision Trees, Support Vector Machines, Random Forests, Logistic Regression, Gaussian Processes, Decision Trees, Scikit-learn Pipelines, etc.) against adversarial threats and helps making AI systems more secure and trustworthy. Machine Learning models are vulnerable to adversarial examples, which are inputs (images, texts, tabular data, etc.) deliberately modified to produce a desired response by the Machine Learning model. ART provides the tools to build and deploy defenses and test them with adversarial attacks. Defending Machine Learning models involves certifying and verifying model robustness and model hardening with approaches such as pre-processing inputs, augmenting training data with adversarial samples, and leveraging runtime detection methods to flag any inputs that might have been modified by an adversary. The attacks implemented in ART allow creating adversarial attacks against Machine Learning models which are required to test defenses with state-of-the-art threat models.


Testing Monotonicity of Machine Learning Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Today, machine learning (ML) models are increasingly applied in decision making. This induces an urgent need for quality assurance of ML models with respect to (often domain-dependent) requirements. Monotonicity is one such requirement. It specifies a software as 'learned' by an ML algorithm to give an increasing prediction with the increase of some attribute values. While there exist multiple ML algorithms for ensuring monotonicity of the generated model, approaches for checking monotonicity, in particular of black-box models, are largely lacking. In this work, we propose verification-based testing of monotonicity, i.e., the formal computation of test inputs on a white-box model via verification technology, and the automatic inference of this approximating white-box model from the black-box model under test. On the white-box model, the space of test inputs can be systematically explored by a directed computation of test cases. The empirical evaluation on 90 black-box models shows verification-based testing can outperform adaptive random testing as well as property-based techniques with respect to effectiveness and efficiency.


Quantifying Interpretability of Arbitrary Machine Learning Models Through Functional Decomposition

arXiv.org Machine Learning

To obtain interpretable machine learning models, either interpretable models are constructed from the outset - e.g. shallow decision trees, rule lists, or sparse generalized linear models - or post-hoc interpretation methods - e.g. partial dependence or ALE plots - are employed. Both approaches have disadvantages. While the former can restrict the hypothesis space too conservatively, leading to potentially suboptimal solutions, the latter can produce too verbose or misleading results if the resulting model is too complex, especially w.r.t. feature interactions. We propose to make the compromise between predictive power and interpretability explicit by quantifying the complexity / interpretability of machine learning models. Based on functional decomposition, we propose measures of number of features used, interaction strength and main effect complexity. We show that post-hoc interpretation of models that minimize the three measures becomes more reliable and compact. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of such measures in a multi-objective optimization approach which considers predictive power and interpretability at the same time.


Assessing the Local Interpretability of Machine Learning Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The increasing adoption of machine learning tools has led to calls for accountability via model interpretability. But what does it mean for a machine learning model to be interpretable by humans, and how can this be assessed? We focus on two definitions of interpretability that have been introduced in the machine learning literature: simulatability (a user's ability to run a model on a given input) and "what if" local explainability (a user's ability to correctly indicate the outcome to a model under local changes to the input). Through a user study with 1000 participants, we test whether humans perform well on tasks that mimic the definitions of simulatability and "what if" local explainability on models that are typically considered locally interpretable. We find evidence consistent with the common intuition that decision trees and logistic regression models are interpretable and are more interpretable than neural networks. We propose a metric - the runtime operation count on the simulatability task - to indicate the relative interpretability of models and show that as the number of operations increases the users' accuracy on the local interpretability tasks decreases.


Using Randomness to Improve Robustness of Machine-Learning Models Against Evasion Attacks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning models have been widely used in security applications such as intrusion detection, spam filtering, and virus or malware detection. However, it is well-known that adversaries are always trying to adapt their attacks to evade detection. For example, an email spammer may guess what features spam detection models use and modify or remove those features to avoid detection. There has been some work on making machine learning models more robust to such attacks. However, one simple but promising approach called {\em randomization} is underexplored. This paper proposes a novel randomization-based approach to improve robustness of machine learning models against evasion attacks. The proposed approach incorporates randomization into both model training time and model application time (meaning when the model is used to detect attacks). We also apply this approach to random forest, an existing ML method which already has some degree of randomness. Experiments on intrusion detection and spam filtering data show that our approach further improves robustness of random-forest method. We also discuss how this approach can be applied to other ML models.


Related Datasets in Oracle DV Machine Learning models

#artificialintelligence

Depending on the algorithm/model that generates this dataset metrics present in the dataset will vary. Here is a list of metrics based on the model: Linear Regression, CART numeric, Elastic Net Linear: R-Square, R-Square Adjusted, Mean Absolute Error(MAE), Mean Squared Error(MSE), Relative Absolute Error(RAE), Related Squared Error(RSE), Root Mean Squared Error(RMSE) CART(Classification And Regression Trees), Naive Bayes Classification, Neural Network, Support Vector Machine(SVM), Random Forest, Logistic Regression: Now you know what the Related datasets are and how they can be useful for fine tuning your Machine Learning model or for comparing two different models. .


Stealing Machine Learning Models via Prediction APIs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning (ML) models may be deemed confidential due to their sensitive training data, commercial value, or use in security applications. Increasingly often, confidential ML models are being deployed with publicly accessible query interfaces. ML-as-a-service ("predictive analytics") systems are an example: Some allow users to train models on potentially sensitive data and charge others for access on a pay-per-query basis. The tension between model confidentiality and public access motivates our investigation of model extraction attacks. In such attacks, an adversary with black-box access, but no prior knowledge of an ML model's parameters or training data, aims to duplicate the functionality of (i.e., "steal") the model. Unlike in classical learning theory settings, ML-as-a-service offerings may accept partial feature vectors as inputs and include confidence values with predictions. Given these practices, we show simple, efficient attacks that extract target ML models with near-perfect fidelity for popular model classes including logistic regression, neural networks, and decision trees. We demonstrate these attacks against the online services of BigML and Amazon Machine Learning. We further show that the natural countermeasure of omitting confidence values from model outputs still admits potentially harmful model extraction attacks. Our results highlight the need for careful ML model deployment and new model extraction countermeasures.


Score Spark-built machine learning models

#artificialintelligence

This topic describes how to load machine learning (ML) models that have been built using Spark MLlib and stored in Azure Blob Storage (WASB), and how to score them with datasets that have also been stored in WASB. It shows how to pre-process the input data, transform features using the indexing and encoding functions in the MLlib toolkit, and how to create a labeled point data object that can be used as input for scoring with the ML models. The models used for scoring include Linear Regression, Logistic Regression, Random Forest Models, and Gradient Boosting Tree Models. You need an Azure account and an HDInsight Spark cluster to begin this walkthrough. See the Overview of Data Science using Spark on Azure HDInsight for these requirements, for a description of the NYC 2013 Taxi data used here, and for instructions on how execute code from a Jupyter notebook on the Spark cluster.